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Challenger for the America's Cup in 1895

Valkyrie III - Sept 10 1895 01.jpg
Valkyrie Flag - Lord Dunraven's Colours
Valkyrie Flag - Lord Dunraven's Colours
Lord Dunraven's colours - flag from either Valkyrie II or Valkyrie III brought back from America

The full story with many more illustrations is told in my book Valkyrie Weather

THE NEW YORK TIMES - Saturday 12 January 1895 - “VALKYRIE III UNDER WAY - Material Purchased and Construction of Cup Challenger Begun - LONDON, Jan. 11 - The United Press learns that the Hendersons, the yacht builders of Glasgow, purchased the material for the construction of a new Valkyrie several months ago, but that work in the direction of building the boat was suspended when the hitch occurred in regard to the custody of the cup. Lord Dunraven has now ordered the work of construction to proceed. The new yacht, which will be a keel boat, will be named the Valkyrie III."

THE TIMES - Tuesday 15 January 1895 - “YACHTING - THE AMERICA CUP - Mr. G. L. Watson yesterday gave orders to Messrs. Henderson, Meadowside, Glasgow, to begin immediately to build a new Valkyrie for Lord Dunraven. The plans are to be kept secret and special workmen will be employed. Mr. Watson will personally superintend the building.”

THE YACHTING WORLD - Friday 22 February 1895 - “It is stated that Lord Dunraven is manning the new Valkyrie with two skippers - the one for port, the other for starboard, we presume.”

“BRIGHTLINGSEA - The rumours of skippers for the new Valkyrie have now been set at rest, Lord Dunraven having retained his old skipper, W. Cranfield, and engaged E. Sycamore, of Carina fame, who will act conjointly with Cranfield. Both being such well-known skilled racing skippers, the appointment is hailed in the Colne with general satisfaction, and the two skippers are now busy collecting their crew. Robert Wringe, who has been mate of Carina, will now take Skipper Sycamore’s place in her this season, and we believe, at Admiral Montagu’s wish, the old crew will remain.”

THE YACHTING WORLD - Friday 15 March 1895 - “BRIGHTLINGSEA - ... Skippers Cranfield and Sycamore have engaged their crew for Valkyrie III.”

THE BELFAST NEWS-LETTER - Thursday 16 May 1895 - “LORD DUNRAVEN’S NEW YACHT - Captain Cranfield and crew have just arrived at Partick to take charge of the new America Cup challenger Valkyrie, which is rapidly approaching completion in the yard of Messrs. Henderson, her builders. The new cutter will be ready in about a fortnight, and it is thought she will be launched on the 28th inst. The new Valkyrie is much larger than the Britannia or her ill-fated namesake.”

THE GLASGOW HERALD - Monday 27 May 1895 - “LAUNCH OF THE NEW VALKYRIE - Lord Dunraven’s new yacht Valkyrie, built by Messrs. D. & W. Henderson, Meadowside, which had been lying on the slip since Friday forenoon awaiting a favourable opportunity, was safely launched shortly after two o’clock yesterday morning. Everything was ready for about 48 hours previously, and, in fact, if the tide had risen high enough the yacht would have been floated on Saturday. As it was, advantage was taken of the night tide, which generally rises from nine inches to a foot higher than the day tide. Mr. G. L. Watson, the designer, was present, and along with Mr. John Henderson superintended the launch. There were also present Lady Rachel Wyndham Quin and Lady Aileen, daughters of Lord Dunraven, and Mrs. John Henderson. Lady Rachel, assisted by Lady Aileen, christened the yacht as she began to glide down the rails on which the carriage rested. As soon as the carriage had run down to a sufficient depth (the Valkyrie draws 17 feet) the yacht floated off quite smoothly, and was afterwards towed to the Queen’s Dock, where she will be fitted with mast and rigging. Lying in the dock she attracted a good deal of attention throughout the day. The launching party waited to see the yacht towed away and then left the yard.

 The time of launching was about 45 minutes before high water. Mr. Watson calculated that the tide would have risen about nine inches more, but as there was depth enough it was not considered necessary to wait. There was almost no wind to affect the rise of the tide in any way. The sky was clear, and everything was perfectly still.   The yacht was run into the water from the patent slip used by the firm for general work, and on which vessels are drawn up for repairs and afterwards launched.

 It is expected that the Valkyrie’s mast and rigging will be fitted in the course of a week...”

THE TIMES - Monday 1 July 1895 - “YACHTING - ROYAL NORTHERN YACHT CLUB REGATTA. "The times of arrival were; Valkyrie 7h.38m.12s; Britannia (winner on time allowance) 7h.39m.59s.”

THE TIMES - Thursday 4 July 1895 - “YACHTING - MUDHOOK YACHT CLUB REGATTA . "The times of passing [the flagboat] were:- Britannia (winner) 2h56m.42s; Ailsa 2h.57m.27s; Valkyrie 2h.59m.48s.”

THE TIMES - Saturday 6 July 1895 - “YACHTING - MATCH BETWEEN VALKYRIE AND AILSA. Valkyrie outsailed Ailsa in the informal race.

THE TIMES - Monday 8 July 1895 - “YACHTING - ROYAL CLYDE YACHT CLUB REGATTA. "After a splendid race from start to finish, the official times of arrival were:- Valkyrie (winner) 4h.31m.16s; Britannia (second prize) 4h.49m.43s; Ailsa 4h.51m.5s. According to corrected time, Valkyrie was winner by 14min. 25sec.from Britannia.”

THE TIMES - Tuesday 9 July 1895 - “YACHTING - ROYAL CLYDE YACHT CLUB REGATTA - There was a threatening sky yesterday morning...The Valkyrie having left early in the morning to be fitted out for her voyage to America.”

THE YACHTING WORLD - Friday 12 July 1895 - “ROWHEDGE - The talk of the place here is whether Valkyrie III is going to bring back the much coveted cup. A good many old salts shake their heads, saying she may beat Defender in our waters, but never in New York harbour.”

Valkyrie III - Crew 1895.jpg

THE NEW YORK TIMES - Monday 29 July 1895 - “VALKYRIE’S OCEAN TRIP - Given a Hearty Bon Voyage as She Put to Sea - CROWDS ON SHORE CHEER HER - Accompanied by Steam Yachts Madura, Mohican, and Gertrude Till Well Started on Her journey - CAMPBELTOWN, Scotland, July 28 - The yacht Valkyrie is now well out at sea, bearing westward the hopes of British yachtsmen. She sailed yesterday for America, and was given an enthusiastic farewell. Saturday morning was wet and cold, with a fresh wind from the east. There was quite a sea running in the upper firth.

No move was made on the Valkyrie until 11 o’clock, when her crew, all in oilskins, boarded her from the Selene, which had been acting as her tender. By this time the rain was falling heavily, causing the sea to begin to go down. As soon as the crew was aboard, the work of adjusting the yacht’s compasses commenced. At noon the blue peter was hoisted on the foremast, indicating that the yacht was about to sail.

The signal attracted crowds ashore, who stood in the rain, watching the yacht as she swung around in circles adjusting the compasses.

At 2 o’clock the compass adjuster went ashore, and the boats of the Valkyrie were taken on deck. No preparations for setting sail were made, it being the intention to tow the boat to sea. At 2.15 everything was in readiness, and the tug Vanguard took her position ahead of the Valkyrie and passed a towline to her. Half an hour later the yacht slipped her moorings, and the Vanguard moved ahead, followed by the cup-hunter.

The crew of the cutter Samoena, which was lying near, were the first to cheer the departing yacht. The Valkyrie’s crew responded heartily. For the next hour the boat experienced a continuous ovation that far surpassed anything given former challengers. Thousands of excursionists crowded on and near Gourock pier, cheering and waving adieus. Crowds followed the yacht, going down the shore road. Every window in Ashton fronting the water was occupied by demonstrative spectators.

Navigator Harrison was steering the boat, for which purpose a wheel gear has been temporarily substituted for the tiller. Capts. Cranfield and Sycamore and the full crew, numbering forty-three men, were on deck. No strangers were aboard the yacht. Lord Dunraven, Mr. Watson, the designer of the boat, and Mr. Henderson, her builder, were not visible. In addition to the United Press tug the steam yacht Madura was accompanying the Valkyrie. Capt. Sycamore soon relieved Navigator Harrison at the wheel. As soon as the boat had got under way the blue peter was hauled down, and Lord Dunraven’s blue and yellow racing flag that was at the masthead in stops was broken out.

The crew were busily engaged in putting everything in shipshape and Bristol fashion. The cutter is carried amidships, the dinghy abreast the jigger mast, and two collapsible boats aft on the counter.

The enthusiasm continued all the way down the Firth, guns being fired from Levan House and Haddow’s Inn. The ensign on the Cloch Lighthouse was dipped as the yacht passed that point. Incoming steamers whistled in salutation, steam and sailing yachts saluted, and the people aboard of them cheered enthusiastically.

As the yacht passed the Cloch Light her forestaysail was set, but it was of no service as the wind had fallen almost to a zephyr. The steam yacht Mohican, owned by Mr. William Clark of Newark, N.J., now steamed abreast of the Valkyrie on the starboard side, while the Madura was on the port side. They moved in these positions until the Skelmorlie Buoy was reached, when the Madura set signals expressing her good wishes. She then ran alongside the Valkyrie and her crew cheered the challenger, after which she turned back. The Mohican shortly after followed suit, firing three guns and signalling her adieus. The steam yacht Gertrude accompanied the Valkyrie to Garroch Head, being the last of the yachts to leave.

The wind then strengthened, and when the Valkyrie was off Cumbrae she set her mainsail, but kept hold of the towline. At 4:30 p.m. she passed Garroch Head, and the representative of the United Press steamed alongside of her and spoke to Capt. Cranfield, who replied that all was well aboard the yacht, and that everybody was in excellent spirits. He added that the boat would tow for a while longer, owing to the light, contrary wind. The patent log was out, the watches set, and all was snug on deck.

At 5:30 o’clock the Valkyrie was still receiving the acknowledging cheers from crowded excursion steamers, and also from incoming line steamers. An hour later the yacht was off Lamlash. There was a faint northerly wind, and the boat was still in tow. At 7:15 she passed the Kildonan signal station on the south end of the Isle of Arran. The coast guard signalled an inquiry if he would report the Valkyrie, but the yacht made no answer. The wind was now getting more westerly, and the sea was smooth. The course was altered to westerly to clear Sanda Island, making the soft wind dead ahead.

At 8:15 the wind still held light and was due west, making the sails useless. A heavy haze set in and darkness was falling. At 9:10 the jigger sail was set, and the yacht was close hauled on the starboard tack. The yacht looked exceedingly shipshape and seaworthy, all her sails being inboard, but her freeboard appeared to be small for an Atlantic voyage.

At 10 o’clock Sanda Island was passed. The night was dark, but the haze was lifting. At that hour the yacht was close hauled on the port tack. She was meeting a strong flood tide, which made her progress slow. At 11 o’clock she was rounding the Mull of Kintyre. The night was very dark, and the Vanguard and Valkyrie could only be discerned by the lights they were carrying. The wind, which was still light, had shifted to the northwest, but a change in the course of the boats made it still dead ahead. There was a strong adverse tide and a slight swell was rolling in from the north. Under these conditions the Vanguard could not drop the Valkyrie until Rathlin Island was cleared, as much time would be lost in beating into the North Channel.

At 2 o’clock this morning the weather was so thick that the signal gun was fired from Rathlin Island at intervals of fifteen minutes, but the Valkyrie made the light. A little further westward the weather began to clear.   At 3 o’clock day began to break, and the Valkyrie could be seen with her forestaysail, mainsail, and jigger sail set. The Vanguard still had her in tow. The sky was cloudy and the wind was coming faintly out of the west.

At 4 o’clock it was broad daylight, and the yacht was well round Rathlin Island. The wind held true from the west, blowing faintly, and was still dead ahead. At 5 o’clock the conditions remained unaltered, the boat of the United Press went alongside, and Capt. Cranfield was asked how much longer he intended to remain in tow. He said he could not tell how far the Vanguard would take them. It would depend on the weather, but probably the line would not be cast off as long as the wind was a head one and the sea remained smooth. At this hour no change had been made in the sails, and Lord Dunraven’s flag was still at the masthead. Only ten men were on deck.

The representative of the United Press saluted the yacht, got a hearty response, and then his boat turned back. At 6:30 the Valkyrie was almost hull down, heading northwest. The wind had backed around to the north, and the Valkyrie was laying her course on an easy reach. The sky was brightening, the barometer rising, and everything portended a good voyage. A little after 6:30 nothing could be seen of the yacht, and her voyage was fairly commenced. Valkyrie’s signal letters in the commercial code are N.V.P.G. Her night signal is three blue lights in the main rigging, two above and one below, forming a letter V.”

THE NEW YORK TIMES - Monday 19 August 1895 - “VALKYRIE SAFE IN PORT - The Cup Challenger Makes a Quick Trip from Scotland - MET STIFF WINDS AND HEAVY SEAS - The Run Required 21 Days 9 Hours and 30 Minutes, Average 129 Miles Per Day - BIGGER EVERY WAY THAN THE DEFENDER - She Carries an Enormous Spread of Canvas and Looks a Powerful Racing Craft - Valkyrie III is anchored off Liberty Island, in the upper bay. The cable rattled through the hawse hole at 10:25 o’clock last night, and it was the most pleasing sound that  Capt. Cranfield and his merry crew of English sailors have heard for more than eighteen days.

The Valkyrie was sighted off Fire Island at 3 o’clock. She was then sailing along under mainsail, jigger sail, working topsail, and staysail, and making rattling good time in the fresh northwest breeze. The news of her arrival was flashed up to the city, and many interested in the challenger for the America’s Cup were on the lookout for her.

The steamer City of Bridgeport, the tender for the yacht, had laid outside Sandy Hook all night with Mr. Arthur Glennie on board. She seemed to get news of the yacht’s arrival, for about the time she was reported she started to the east to try and find her. Some enterprising boatmen were also out looking for the English boat, and there were two or three newspaper tugs with reporters on board. About 5 o’clock when fifteen miles this side of Fire Island, a tug signalled the yacht, and Capt. Cranfield, wishing to get in as soon as possible, agreed to take a line. The City of Bridgeport and the other tugs soon joined the Valkyrie, and the flotilla escorted the yacht to her anchorage.

The Valkyrie looked every inch a racer as she came along. At her mainmast fluttered the private signal of Lord Dunraven, a blue and yellow flag; on her jigger was the English ensign. Both flags stood out well in the fresh breeze. Lord Dunraven’s signal was a little torn after eighteen days’ battle with the winds of the Atlantic, but it was emblematic of the indomitable pluck of the Englishman who, after one defeat, has come over the Atlantic Ocean again to try and win the famous old America’s Cup. Capt. Cranfield was standing on the deck aft, and he waved a cheery “How do you do?” to the reporter for the New-York Times, and shouted over the water in answer to a query that they had had a fair passage and all were well.

“Going to win the cup, Captain?” was asked.

“We’re going to try hard,” he replied, “and the Defender will be a good one to beat us,” shouted several of the crew.

The Valkyrie is a big boat. She looked yesterday as though the Defender could be put inside of her. Her bow is an immensely powerful one, and unlike anything seen on any yacht in this country. Her overhang forward and aft are both long, but her lines are fine and easy, and her immense beam is not so noticeable. She has more freeboard than either Defender or Vigilant.

In spite of the stories about her carrying a big bow wave when going through the water, she seemed to travel very easily and to make very little fuss, either when sailing or being towed. She is painted white, with a neat band of gold around her rail. Her rig gave her a peculiar appearance.

The bowsprit is only about three feet out board. There is no bobstay. The mainmast is tall, but the mainsail is a small one on account of the jigger being stepped so far forward. The boom of the jigger does not reach as far as the taffrail aft.

As soon as the yacht was taken in tow, the crew got to work on the sails. They were lowered, and then unbent and stowed away, as she came up the harbor one would think, to see her, that she had been towed across the ocean. She looked little the worse for her long journey, in spite of the rough weather she experienced during the first week. A few scratches showed on her white paint under her bow, and that was all.

At 7:30 o’clock the yacht passed Sandy Hook Lightship, and the lightship keeper rang his bell in greeting. The City of Bridgeport answered with three toots of her whistle. Then the station pilot boat was reached, and three cheers were given for the Britisher by the pilots, one of whom was taken on board.

Every craft that passed her on the way up the bay saluted her, and the Bridgeport’s whistle was kept busy answering these salutes. At 10:25 o’clock she reached Quarantine. Dr. Doty, the Health Officer, was absent, but his deputy came out at once, and soon passed the yacht. Then she was towed to deep water off Liberty Island, where she anchored for the night.

A reporter for the New-York Times boarded her as soon as she came to anchor. Mr. Arthur Glennie was on board with a big bag of mail, which he was distributing among the crew. Several big bundles were for Capt. Cranfield, but he put them on one side while he chatted to the reporter about his trip across.

“We can’t complain about the voyage. The first week out we had rough weather, and the last week light winds,” he said.

"In the gale, which lasted five days, we were hove to for several hours each day, and one day we carried away our topsail halyards and boom guy. That was the only mishap on the trip. There are forty-two men on board, and a dog, our mascot. Capt. Sycamore is to assist me. Capt. James Harrison of the Allan Line was the navigator. The mates are W. Taylor and Luther Gould, and the boatswain W. Cook. The crew is a good one, and I think the boat will be handled all right.

“Cape Race was sighted last Sunday, and since then we had head winds and fog. Taken all through, it was a good trip, and we are all here and all well.”

“What are your plans now, Captain?”

“I don’t know until I read my letters. The yacht will be fitted out at once, but where I can’t say. It will take about a week to get her in racing trim. We shall then go into dry dock, and then try to tune the yacht up, making our headquarters in the Horseshoe.”

“How much faster is the Valkyrie than the Britannia?”

“Oh, I can’t say,” replied Capt. Cranfield, laughing.

“Is she fifteen minutes faster?” asked the reporter.

“Yes, I think she is, and the Britannia is sailing faster this year than ever.”

“What of the Defender?”

“Well, I can’t tell. I don’t know what she has done.”

The reporter then told Capt. Cranfield of the Defender’s performances, and that over a thirty-mile course she had averaged 5 minutes and 20 seconds better than the old cup defender.

“Then she’s a good boat,” said the Captain. But there was a merry twinkle in his eyes as he said it, which seemed to show that he was pleased that she was no faster.

Capt. Cranfield laughed when told that yachtsmen here thought that the Valkyrie’s trial speed  had not been shown in her races, but he would not say that she had done her best. In speaking of her races on the Clyde, he said she was beaten in her first race through a fluke. In her second race, he said, the wind was much stronger than it was during the last race between the Vigilant and old Valkyrie, and was more like that in the last race of the Puritan against Genesta. She beat the Britannia nineteen minutes, fairly and squarely, over a fifty-mile course, in a good clubtopsail breeze, and gave the Ailsa a good beating in light weather over a shorter course.

Capt. Cranfield was very much surprised to hear the Defender was a much smaller boat than the Valkyrie, and remarked: “Well, we shall have to give her time.”

He knew nothing about her spars or sails here, but will find out to-day. He denied the story that the Valkyrie was tender, or that twenty tons of lead were put in after her second race.

Capt. Harrison, who navigated the yacht across, said: “She is a beautiful boat to sail, and made fine weather of it all the way over. If she is beaten, then the Defender is a wonder.”

The Valkyrie has a rail about six inches high around her deck. This will be taken off when she is in racing trim. Below, the officers have staterooms in the after part of the boat, and all the rest is given up to the crew. Their bunks are around the sides, and the mess table is in the middle. All the bunks and interior fittings will be taken out at once, and the men will live on board the City of Bridgeport.

STORY OF THE TRIP - The Racer Behaved Well in Her Ketch Rig All the Way Over - A reporter for the New-York Times boarded the Valkyrie before she came to anchor, and the story of her trip across was gathered from talks with Capts. Cranfield and Sycamore, and from the log kept by the Navigating Officer, James Harrison.

The Valkyrie left the other side on the afternoon of Saturday, July 27. She finished adjusting at 1:30 P.M., and at 2:40 she left Gourock in tow of the tug Vanguard. The wind at first was easterly, becoming variable later. At 3 A.M. she put Rathlin Island abeam, and at 9 let go her towboat and set her course northwest by west half west.

At noon there was a fresh breeze blowing, and the weather was cloudy, with a heavy northwest swell. The wind had changed to north-northwest, and was blowing strongly, causing her to pitch heavily.

The same wind prevailed the following day, July 28, and her course was laid west half south. It was cloudy during the day and a fresh breeze and northwest swell kept her pitching as on the day before.

Later in the day it became squally, and rain fell. The vessel rolled from side to side, with her sails flapping heavily. On July 29 the prevailing winds were northwest by west by north-northwest. The vessel continued to roll in a high northwest swell, with her sails flapping to windward. That day she made 127 miles, her run the day before having been 148 miles.

On the morning of July 30 the Valkyrie sailed along with light variable breezes and squally weather. The wind shifted to northwest by west to west, and then to west by south. The breeze was light during the day, accompanied by a northwest swell, and the Valkyrie added only eighty-three miles to the distance she had travelled. On the morning of July 31 the winds were still light and variable. The weather was squally with rain. During the forenoon a moderate breeze sprang up, and blew west by south. The general direction of the Valkyrie’s course during the day was northwest.

At 3 P.M. the wind began to freshen, blowing then north by west. This was the beginning of a series of strong winds and rough weather that kept the two Captains and their British sailors busy for several days. During the afternoon the Valkyrie reefed her sails, but nevertheless she covered 155 miles, her best day’s run up to that time.

At noon on Aug. 1 a moderate gale was blowing from the northwest, the sky was overcast, and the sea was already roughening up. By 4 o’clock a heavy sea was running, and the Valkyrie was scudding along under shortened sail. Her run that day was 204 miles, which, with one exception, was her best record for any day.

The next day the gales continued, with a heavy sea running, and for several hours the vessel lay hove to, laboring heavily. At 3:30 A.M. she got under way again, and tacked toward the west.

Heavy squalls and a very high confused sea prevailed, and the Valkyrie continually shipped large quantities of water. By noon of Aug. 2 the wind had begun to moderate. The gale, which was still considerable, came from the northwest and north-north-west. A very high sea kept the yacht rolling and pitching heavily and shipping much water over all. The weather continued very rough during the night, and at 3 A.M. on Aug. 3 the wheel ropes and the pin of the running tackleblock were carried away. The Valkyrie’s run for Aug. 2 was only eighty-one miles.

On Saturday, Aug. 3, the same general conditions prevailed, and the Valkyrie continued to ship water by the barrelful. The winds came from the northwest and north, and the Valkyrie’s course was laid for most of the day west by south. At 6 o’clock in the evening the gale was moderating, and the sea had gone down somewhat. That night the Valkyrie made pretty good weather, and her run for the day was 160 miles.

At 2 A.M. on Aug. 4, the Valkyrie passed an unknown steamer bound west, to which she showed her night signals. At daybreak the sky was overcast and rain fell.

During the forenoon a strong and increasing breeze came from the north, and the Valkyrie headed up to the northwest. At 11 A.M. she was compelled to heave to, and for several hours a fresh gale, with very high seas, kept the vessel laboring heavily. This continued until about 4 o’clock in the afternoon, when the gale moderated and the Captain kept his ship away, pitching and rolling heavily and shipping much water in the still high sea. Her run for the day was 93 miles.

At 9 A.M. on Aug. 5, Capt. Cranfield shook out his reefs, and at noon he tacked to the west, and at the end of the day had added ninety-one miles to the distance from Gourock.

At 6 A.M. on Aug. 6, the Valkyrie spoke to the German steamer Rotterdam, bound west, in latitude 50.20 degrees north, longitude 35.05 degrees west. Light, variable airs prevailed during the day, the sky was overcast and hazy, and the vessel rolled and pitched with sails flapping heavily in a high, confused swell.

During the evening it rained continuously. The Valkyrie’s run for the day was 123 miles.

All of the next day strong northwesterly winds prevailed. Her course was laid west by north, one-half north, and in the twenty-four hours the number of miles made was only eighty-one.

On the morning of Aug. 8 the sea went down somewhat, and the mainsail was lowered for repairs, but within an hour and a half it was in proper trim again to catch the moderate northerly breezes with which the day began. The winds were variable and rather light, but on the whole were very favorable ones, and on this day the Valkyrie made her best day’s run of 219 miles.

The wind increased after midnight, and at 4 o’clock A.M. on Aug. 9 the yacht lost her jib topsail sheet, which was carried away. The next day the Valkyrie ran 129 miles in a strong northwesterly breeze, and as evening came on she encountered a heavy rain. The wind suddenly fell to a light breeze, with a thick fog prevailing.

On the following day the breeze freshened somewhat, coming from the southwest, and later from the southeast, but the haze continued thick. The Valkyrie covered 189 miles that day, making a total of 537 miles for the three consecutive days.

On Aug. 11 the fog had cleared in the forenoon, and the Valkyrie bowled along in a gentle northeasterly breeze. At 2:30 P.M. she was again shut in by a thick fog. At 4:30 she left the Cape Race Lighthouse abeam, half a mile distant. She signalled Cape Race an hour later, when the fog had begun to lift. Owing principally to the fog, her day’s run was only eighty-three miles. A fresh breeze sprang up at midnight, bringing with it a heavy rain.

At 8:25 A.M. on Aug. 12, the Valkyrie left Cape Pine abeam seven miles distant. Moderate southeasterly breezes prevailed, and in a smooth sea the Valkyrie cleared 140 miles, holding her course west by north. On Aug. 13 a strong but shifting breeze prevailed, and in a rough sea the Valkyrie added 173 miles more to her score.

The next morning a high confused swell set the vessel to rolling heavily, with her sails flapping in a northwesterly wind, which carried her 154 miles further along on her westward voyage. The conditions were about the same next day, and the Valkyrie chipped off 145 miles more of the distance separating her from her goal.

In the moderate breeze and thick fog, with the weather conditions on Aug. 16, the Valkyrie’s run for the day was 140 miles.

At 4 A.M. on Aug. 17, the Valkyrie was becalmed and for four hours her skippers could not whistle up sufficient breeze to give her headway. Between 8 o’clock and noon a gentle breeze sprang up, and continued during the day, which was fine and clear overhead. During the time that she was in motion the Valkyrie got over eighty miles more of her way.

At 8 o’clock yesterday morning the Valkyrie got a light wind from the west, which shifted during the day to north-northwest, and finally to almost due north. The sky was overcast, and the Valkyrie found rainy weather as she passed along off the Long Island shore. At 3 P.M. she signalled to the observing station at Fire Island, but failed to get any response.

Her Captains were rather indignant that this was the case, for they had purposely run in close to the shore in order that the yachtsmen on this side of the water might have early information of her approach to New-York. The two Captains said that, as far as they could make out, there was no one alive at the Fire Island Station, and they were very much surprised to learn that they had actually been seen by the observer and reported at about the same time they were flying their signals.

After passing Fire Island the Valkyrie laid her course west by north, and as she approached the lower harbor changed it to west, one-half south. She was on this course when she was picked up and taken in tow by the waiting tug.


Saturday, July 27, 2:40 P.M. - Gourock

Sunday, July 28, Tory Island abeam, 10 miles - 148

Monday, July 29, lat. 54.35, lon. 12.12 - 127

Tuesday, July 30, lat. 53.55, lon. 14.15 - 83

Wednesday, July 31, lat. 54.32, lon. 18.31 - 155

Thursday, Aug. 1, lat. 55.40, lon. 24.06 - 204

Friday, Aug. 2, lat. 54.42, lon. 23.45 - 81

Saturday, Aug. 3, lat. 52.53, lon. 29.04 - 160

Sunday, Aug. 4, lat. 52.08, lon. 31.20 - 93

Monday, Aug. 5, lat. 51.31, lon. 33.33 - 91

Tuesday, Aug. 6, lat. 50.22, lon. 35.12 - 123

Wednesday, Aug. 7, lat. 49.46, lon. 38.04 - 81

Thursday, Aug. 8, lat. 48.23, lon. 43.14 - 219

Friday, Aug. 9, lat. 47.41, lon. 46.16 - 129

Saturday, Aug. 10, lat. 47.16, lon. 50.51 - 189

Sunday, Aug. 11, lat. 46.52, lon. 52.47 - 83

Monday, Aug. 12, lat. 45.58, lon. 55.57 - 140

Tuesday, Aug. 13, lat. 44.41, lon. 59.30 - 173

Wednesday, Aug. 14, lat. 43.31, lon. 62.35 - 154

Thursday, Aug. 15, lat. 41.38, lon. 64.38 - 145

Friday, Aug. 16, lat. 40.42, lon. 67.28 - 140

Saturday, Aug. 17, lat. 40.43, lon. 69.14 - 80

Sunday, Aug. 18, lat. 40.37, lon. 72.44 - 159

To Sandy Hook - 59

TOTAL - 3,016

Her passage from Malin Head, where she dropped her tug, on the other side, to Sandy Hook, 2,770 nautical miles, took her 21 days, 9 hours, and 30 minutes, an average of 129 miles a day.

The Vigilant last April made 2,934 miles, from The Lizard to Sandy Hook in 18 days, 1 hour, and 45 minutes, a daily average of 168 miles, but the Vigilant had more favorable weather than the Valkyrie III has experienced.

OFFICERS OF THE VALKYRIE - Capts. Cranfield and Sycamore Experienced Sailing Masters - Capt. William Cranfield of the Valkyrie comes from a family of racing Captains, two of his brothers being able racing men.

Capt. Cranfield went to the Clyde as a young man in the seventies, as hand in the sixty-ton Neva, under his eldest brother. From that time the Cranfields became much thought of and respected on the Clyde, and none more so than Willie.

William Cranfield has now been several years with Lord Dunraven, having succeeded that fine old Itchen Ferry skipper, Tom Diaper, in the Valkyrie in her second season. His sailing of the May brought him prominently into notice. The winning of twenty prizes, worth about £1,100, in the May; seventy-eight prizes, valued at £3,370, in three years in the Yarana, and fifteen prizes, representing about £900, in the Valkyrie in 1891, tell of his abilities as a sailing master.

Capt. Sycamore....[a repeat of the information given in the YACHTING WORLD  article of 22 February 1895].

The Valkyrie’s navigator on her trip across the Atlantic was Capt. James Harrison of the Allan Line. He is a Scotchman, having been born in Ayr thirty-six years ago. His entire career on the water has been spent in the service of the Allans, each grade, from his apprenticeship to that of first mate, having been passed with the highest credit. In various capacities he has done duty on the Assyrian, Corean, Pomeranian, Peruvian, and other vessels of the fleet. Until very recently Capt. Harrison was mate of the Pomeranian. He was released temporarily at the request of Lord Dunraven and Hugh McCalmont, to navigate the cup challenger across.

DIMENSIONS OF VALKYRIE - Widest Beam of Any Cup Challenger - Figures for Experts - The Valkyrie III is the beamiest keel boat that has ever been built, either to defend or challenge for the America’s Cup, and she is also the most powerful one. She is also a foot wider than the widest centreboarder ever built to defend the cup.

The Valkyrie’s draught is 18 feet 6 inches. The extreme beam is between the water line and deck. At the latter point the frame begins to tumble to the deck, where Valkyrie III measures 26 feet 6 inches. The midsection has a round, full, easy side to it, with a beam of 27 feet, two feet above the water line. It measures 26 feet at the water line. From this point the line is brought down, giving an easy curve yet powerful shape to the bilge. The lines then take on a little dead rise, and run down into the garboards in an easy curve, and then down almost perpendicular for eight feet to the bottom of the lead keel.

The lead keel on the top is wider than on the Defender, and is three feet in the widest part of the bulb. It is deep aft, and rises with a rake of eight degrees from a horizontal.

The Valkyrie has a sort of ballast fin midships section. The midsection is one of the most powerful ever put on a cup challenger or defender. It is a section showing great stability of form, a section which, while easy, offers great resistance to heeling.

The top of the lead keel on the Valkyrie measures 32 feet 6 inches, and she has an area to her lateral plane of 861.37 square feet. She has about 158 tons displacement.

Valkyrie’s power has been utilized to the best advantage. She will stand up, and her bilge will form an elbow when she is hard driven, and will prevent her sagging off to leeward.

The beam dimensions of the Valkyrie at 20 feet aft of the stemhead are 11.4 feet; at 40 feet aft, 20.2 feet; at 60 feet aft, 25.6 feet; at 80 feet aft, 26 feet, and at 100 feet aft, 24 feet 4 inches. The stern is nearly elliptical in shape.

The overall length of the Valkyrie is 129 feet. Her forward overhang measures 18 feet, and her after overhang 21 feet 6 inches. From the end of the water line aft to where the rudder post enters the boat it is 10 feet. Her least freeboard is 4 feet 5 inches. The lead keel at the midships section on top is 3 feet 9 inches, and its depth here is 3 feet 6 inches. It weighs about 80 tons. The draught of the Valkyrie at the midsection is 17 feet 6 inches, and her extreme draught is 18 feet 6 inches. At a point 27 feet forward of the after end of the load water line is the place of the greatest draught.

The approximate sail plan of the Valkyrie shows a mainsail of over 7,000 square feet, with a total area of working sails not far from 11,500 square feet, which is just about 1,000 square feet in her favour. This additional sail area gives the Valkyrie more sail to each foot of wetted surface, lateral plane, and to each ton of displacement.

The spar dimensions of Valkyrie are: Boom, 105 feet; mast, (over deck) 102 feet; gaff, 62 feet; topmast, 62 feet; bowsprit outboards, 20 feet; hoist of mainsail, 64 feet. Her mast is stepped 27 feet aft the face of the stem on the load water line.

The Valkyrie is built of wood, composite construction, steel frames, with the latter material for stringers, &c. She is flush planked. A patent covering has been put on over her planking. Her bulwarks are set in from the outside plank shear edge by over a foot at the midsection, and from this point aft, especially in the quarters, the bulwarks are kept in. This will prevent tons of solid water being held on deck, and will also stop the pulling of the bulwarks and the rail through the water when the lee decks are washed.

These are the concise figures of the yacht: Displacement in tons, 158; displacement in tons for each foot of water-line length, 1.75; area of lateral plane, 861.37 square feet; centre of lateral resistance from face of stem, 50 feet 9 inches; centre of buoyancy from face of stem, 49 feet 3 inches; centre of buoyancy aft centre load line, 4 feet 3 inches; centre of lateral resistance aft centre load line, 4 feet 3 inches; wetted surface, 2,800 square feet; sail area to each foot of wetted surface, 4.14 square feet; sail area to each foot of lateral plane, 13.92 square feet; area load water plane, 1,568 square feet; area midships section, 135 square feet; coefficient of midships section, .29; coefficient of displacement, .1373; tons per inch of immersion, 3.68; metacentre above centre of buoyancy, (in feet) 10.56; draught, 18.6 feet; extreme beam, 27 feet; water-line length, 90 feet; length over all, 129 feet; construction of hull, composite; sail area, working sails, 11,600 square feet.”

Captains Cranfield & Sycamore - Valkyrie
Valkyrie III - 1895 Dry Dock - Erie Basi
Valkyrie III - USA 1895 Loading mainsail
Capts Sycamore & Cranfield New York - Th
Teddy GOODRUM.jpg



Date of arrival; 29 August 1895. Port of embarkation; Liverpool

[All except Mr. Watson are Citizens of England, Last residence; London. Intended destination; New York, Transient]

LORD DUNRAVEN, age 54, Male, Gentleman, 15 pieces of baggage.

LADY RACHEL W. GUIN (sic), age 24, Female, Spinster, 7 pieces of baggage.

LADY AILEEN W. GUIN (sic), age 21, Female, Spinster, 7 pieces of baggage, “and 2 dogs”.

EDWARD GOODWIN (sic), age 45, Male, Valet.

ALICE BURTON, age 26, Female, Maid, [No baggage mentioned]

MR. G. L. WATSON, age 49, Male, Boat Builder, Citizen of; Scotland. Last residence; Glasgow. Intended destination; New York, Transient.

THE NEW YORK TIMES – Sunday 8 September 1895 - “DEFENDER WINS THE FIRST CUP RACE - Defeated the Valkyrie by 8 Minutes 49 Seconds in a Beat to Windward and Back - Outsailed the Englishman at Every Point - The American Boat Led in the Thrash to Windward by 3 Minutes 23 Seconds - Wind Mostly Light, But a Heavy Swell was Running - Over 15,000 Persons Saw the Race from Excursion Steamers, Tugs, and Steam Yachts - The Defender Was Excellently Handled and Fairly Won Her Victory - Capt. Cranfield Got the First Lead to No Avail -


START - Defender 12h.20m.30s, Valkyrie 12h.20m.46s

TURN - Defender 3h.36m.29s, Valkyrie 3h.39m.52s

FINISH - Defender 5h.21m.14s, Valkyrie 5h.29m.30s

ELAPSED TIME - Defender 5h.0m.24s, Valkyrie 5h.8m.44s

CORRECTED TIME - Defender 4h.59m.55s, Valkyrie 5h.8m.44s.

Defender won by 8 minutes 49 seconds.

The first of the series of races between the Defender and the Valkyrie for the America’s Cup was sailed outside Sandy Hook yesterday in a light breeze, and an “old sea” of considerable weight. The course was from a point off Seabright, N.J., fifteen miles to windward, east by south, and return.

The wind blew at a rate of about six or seven knots per hour, and the racers covered the course in about five hours. In the beat to windward the Defender outsailed the Valkyrie by nearly three and one-half minutes, and on the run home she added another five minutes to her victory, thus  beating her opponent by considerably more than eight minutes and a half.

The victory was most decided and by a margin that was wholly unexpected. Lord Dunraven himself said in a recent interview that he thought his yacht would give a better account of herself in a breeze, and it may yet turn out that this is a  true estimate; but it seems unlikely, after yesterday’s race, that she can move through the water with the celerity of the Defender in any kind of weather at all. A great fleet of vessels carried spectators to see the first of the struggles, and, judging by the scene at the finish, all believed the cup to be safe. It was one of splendid, inspiring enthusiasm. Steamships, steam yachts, steamboats, and tugs crowded around the finish line, and, while shrieking whistles rent the misty air, deep-lunged American cheers rang across the waters and tens of thousands of hats and handkerchiefs waved.

Owing to the direction of the wind the Regatta Committee saw fit to start the race from a point some distance southwest of the Sandy Hook Lightship. The committee boat was at the southerly end of the starting line, and the two yachts crossed close to her on the starboard tack, the Valkyrie ahead, but in the leeward berth. A good many excursion boats were massed directly ahead of the yachts as they crossed, but this was the only time when the greater part of the fleet did not keep well out of the way.

VALKYRIE LEADS AT FIRST - Immediately after crossing the line, Capt. Haff began to pinch the Defender until her headsails shivered in the wind. Capt. Cranfield, on the other hand, sailed the Valkyrie rap full, and she at once began to outfoot the American representative. Things began to look the color of the Defender - a pale blue -  and it can be said very safely that 15,000 American hearts went suddenly downward.

At this time one of the Iron Steamboat fleet deliberately crossed the bows of both yachts, and gave them the benefit of her wash. This was the only flagrant instance  of misconduct on the part of the excursion boats, except near the outer mark, where half a dozen of them bothered both racers.

Capt. Haff soon saw that it was a poor course for him to pinch the cup defender, so he let her go off a little, and she at once began to pick up her heels and show her true pace. It was not long after this that the wind eased a trifle toward the south, and the Defender began to move faster.

The Valkyrie, however, was doing admirable work. Capt. Cranfield, taking advantage of his lead, endeavoured to luff the challenger across the Defender’s bows, but he found it an unprofitable experiment.

About 12:40 the two yachts went on the port tack and the Valkyrie was right on the Defender’s weather beam. But now the American yacht suddenly began to move out ahead. Slowly and steadily she outpaced the Valkyrie, and the performance set all the old salts guessing why. The sea was now almost abeam, and the lightness of the wind seemed to make the larger topsail on the Defender a telling piece of canvas. At 1 o’clock the Defender was a quarter of a mile ahead of the Valkyrie, though fully 300 yards to leeward.

When they went about again some eleven minutes later their positions were reversed, and on this starboard tack the Valkyrie again appeared to gain, and all good Americans were frightened. But their time of rejoicing was at hand. The critical and decisive period of the race was about to come, and it gave old yachtsmen a genuine thrill, for it was one of the prettiest pieces of work ever seen in American waters.

The Valkyrie went about at about 1:40, and on the starboard tack tried to cross the Defender’s bows. As the yachts came together it was seen that the English yacht could not accomplish her purpose, and she tried to come about on the weather quarter of the Defender; but Capt. Haff, like a flash, put the Defender on the port tack, and went clear of the Valkyrie.

These manoeuvres were so neatly executed that neither yacht gained much; but the failure of the Valkyrie to accomplish her purpose was a blow to the hopes of the Englishmen and a splendid encouragement to Americans. The Defender was now heading off to the southward and eastward, and a short time afterward the wind freshened from that direction, and when she went on the starboard tack again, she had the Valkyrie at her mercy.

Being out to the southward of the Valkyrie, when the latter was also on the starboard tack, Capt. Haff was able to give the  Defender a good full, and the light blue yacht began to glide forward, closing the gap of rolling gray water between her and the Valkyrie. Gradually but inexorably the American yacht gained, and at 2:30 she was almost abreast of the challenger. Victory was now a foregone conclusion, unless an accident happened or the Valkyrie proved to be an exceptionally fast yacht off the wind.

The two racers held this long starboard tack until nearly 3:30 o’clock. Capt. Haff then saw that he could weather the outer mark on the port tack, and about he went. Capt. Cranfield followed suit, and then the veriest landsman that ever wore a yachting cap could see that the Valkyrie was soundly beaten, for she was fully half a mile astern and right in the Defender’s wake.

Running for the finish, the yachts had the wind over the port quarter, and the Defender scurried away like a joyous bird, adding minute after minute to her lead over the sad Valkyrie. Looming through the mist which now swept in from the south-east with a sprinkle of light rain, the Defender swept forward to a glorious victory. Just as she neared the finishing line the sun broke through a rift in the clouds and laid a sparking golden path for the victor’s prow. Down that avenue of nature’s glory she moved majestically to her triumph, while astern of her the beaten boat moved silently in the gathering fog. It was a subject and a theme for a poet.

HOW THE RACE WAS SAILED - Defender wore ship and stood across to the westward of the line, and a little later she was followed by the Valkyrie.

The Defender jibed her boom over to starboard and stood down toward the Valkyrie, and at 11:57 Capt. Cranfield jibed the Valkyrie and had gained a weather position on the American boat. Both were then close hauled on the starboard tack heading toward the line, and the spectators had a chance to compare the two boats.

The Defender’s blue hull gave her a peculiar appearance and the unbleached mainsail with a white clubtopsail above it did not add to her beauty. One facetious Englishman remarked that her hull was not anything like as blue as the crowd on board would be after the race. The Valkyrie looked white beside the American boat. Her clubtopsail towered up above that of the Defender and her sail spread altogether looked much larger than that of the other boat.

The Valkyrie, to windward, easily held the Defender, although the Defender carried a staysail set, while the Valkyrie’s was still in stops. They footed fast, although the wind was blowing hardly more than five miles an hour. At noon the staysail on the Valkyrie was broken out and she drew slightly ahead of the Defender. The committee boat, which was anchored at the northern end of the line, was passed and the two stood on toward the southern end of the line, both close hauled on the port tack.

At 12:04 the Defender wore round and the Valkyrie, following her example, ran back toward the line, and then reached toward the north.

The Valkyrie had the weather position on the Defender. The preparatory signal was given at 12:10. Both yachts jibed. The Valkyrie held across the Defender’s bow, hauled on the wind, and stood for the line in the lead. Both were again at the southern end of the line and both crossed some minutes before the starting signal was given.

The Valkyrie broke out a baby jibtopsail at 12:15, and a minute later the Defender set a No.2 jibtopsail. The Valkyrie wore round, came up on the western side of the stakeboat, and came down for the line just as the starting signal was given, at 12:20.

Hank Haff, on the Defender, had timed things to a nicety. He had worked up just astern of the stakeboat, and as the starting gun was given he luffed sharply, shot the Defender in between the stakeboat and the Valkyrie, and had gained the weather position, beating Capts. Cranfield and Sycamore at what is supposed to be their strongest hold. The Defender, while she had gained the weather position, was just a little behind the Englishman. Valkyrie crossed the line at 12:20:46, and Defender at 12:20:50, just four seconds later.

It was as pretty a start as was ever seen in a yacht race off Sandy Hook, and for an hour or more the spectators were to see one of the closest and hardest fights for the lead that was ever witnessed in light weather. Capt. Haff stood at the wheel on the Defender. The crew and everybody on board lay down to windward and flattened themselves so that not an inch should catch the wind. The sheets had been trimmed down flat, every sail set perfectly, and every stitch of canvas was drawing well.

Right on her lee bow was the Valkyrie. Capt. Cranfield stood at the tiller, and her crew were just as flat as those on the Defender. The beautiful sails of the Valkyrie set to perfection, and they, too, were drawing, and for a while it seemed as though they were doing better work than those of the American boat. Capt. Haff had gained the weather position at the start, and he intended to keep it. He pinched his boat right up in the wind, perhaps a little too much in his anxiety to keep to windward, while Capt. Cranfield gave the Valkyrie a good full, and the English boat, to everyone’s dismay, gradually drew clear of the Defender, and in a few minutes there was  daylight between the two boats. Capt. Haff was clearly outpointing the English boat with the Defender, but the Valkyrie was footing so much faster that what little the Defender was gaining to windward was being more than offset by the Valkyrie in going faster through the water.

The sea on this tack was right on the yachts’ quarter, and seemed to bother them very little. Occasionally a big wave would roll under one or the other of them and spill the wind out of their sails, but it did  not seem to retard their progress through the water at all.

The Valkyrie, on account of her greater beam, made more fuss in the water than the Defender. There was quite a wave under her bow, while there was comparatively little under that of the Defender. At the end of fifteen minutes’ sailing the Valkyrie appeared to be about 200 yards ahead, but considerably to leeward of the Defender - not so much, though, as she was ahead. They were making good headway in the light breeze, and the outlook for the race being finished in time was exceedingly good. They were heading to the northeast, and the big fleet of excursionists nearly all kept astern or well to leeward of them. One or two persisted in working around to windward of the racers and gave the Captains of the patrol boats a chance to exercise their persuasive powers in trying to induce them to withdraw.

The starboard tack was held for nearly twenty minutes, and at 12:39:30 the Defender tacked to port. She was followed fifteen seconds later by the Valkyrie. Both yachts spun round like tops.

At 1:11:45 the Valkyrie tacked to starboard, and she was followed at once by the Defender. This placed the Valkyrie considerably in the lead, but the Defender had worked up so that she was a little to windward of the English boat.

 t began to look as though the Valkyrie was going to win, and many gave up the race then, while those who had been shouting for the Valkyrie became very enthusiastic over the performance so far.

It was early in the race. The yachts had not sailed five miles, and lots might happen in the other twenty-five. Lots did happen, too, and the Valkyrie was only destined to hold the lead for a short while longer. Capt. Cranfield was letting the English boat foot along with a good full, and she was gradually outfooting the American boat, but Capt. Haff had his eye out to windward all the time, and was pinching and pushing the Defender inch by inch out into the wind, and every inch out this way told more than two the way the Valkyrie was going.

The wind as they got further outside seemed to be a little stronger, and both yachts began to foot a little faster. At  1:47:30 the Valkyrie tacked to port, and the two boats were for the first time approaching each other on opposite tacks. The excitement as the two drew together was intense. The Valkyrie only held this tack for a minute, but to those who were watching it seemed like an hour. At 1:48:30 the Valkyrie tacked to starboard. She had been unable to cross the Defender, and the Defender having the right of way, had forced her about.

It was raining down in the south, and it looked as though a breath of wind might come in from that quarter, and if so, she would catch the benefit of it, and probably get a good lift on the Valkyrie. Capt. Cranfield put the Valkyrie on the port tack at 1:52:45, and fifteen seconds later the Defender tacked to starboard, and the two were drawing together again.

The wind had hauled just a little more to the southward, and the Defender had caught a little slant that sent her ahead, so that at 1:46:45 she crossed the Valkyrie’s bow, and as she did so, Capt. Haff put the wheel hard over, and the Yankee yacht spun round like a top on the weather bow of the Englishman. Again the whistles from the excursion steamers, tugs, and yachts tooted out their appreciation of the move.

It did not suit Capt. Cranfield a bit, for the Defender had hardly got full on the port tack before the Valkyrie tacked to starboard and headed again toward the north. The Defender held on the port tack until 1:59:20, and she, too, tacked, standing to the northward. The yachts had been sailing about one hour and forty minutes. More than half of the windward journey had been made, and the two boats were practically in the same position as they were when they crossed the starting line. It had been a remarkably close contest, so far, and it was still anybody’s race. The mark boat could be distinctly seen in the distance, and in order to fetch it both made a long tack to starboard.

VALKYRIE THE LEEWARD BOAT - The situation was changed, and the Valkyrie, now being the leeward boat, was being pinched in order, if possible, to work her up to the Defender. Capt. Cranfield did not have Capt. Haff’s luck, for every minute the American boat was lengthening the distance between the two.

PASSING THE OUTER MARK - At 3:36:29 the Defender passed the outer stakeboat. As she did so her sheet was eased off and her boom swung over the starboard quarter. The balloon jibtopsail was broken out, and, filling at once, the yacht seemed to jump forward and speed toward the home mark.

The Valkyrie carried her jibtopsail until 3:35:00, and then half a dozen of the English crew went out on the bowsprit, just like those on the Defender; the sail was run down, the bigger one bent on and hoisted, and all was ready to break out as soon as she turned. She passed the mark at 3:39:52, and as she did so the balloon was broken out, and the main sheet eased off, and she, too, was on the homeward journey.

On the fifteen-mile beat to windward the Defender had taken 3:15:39, the Valkyrie had taken 3:19:06, so that the Defender had beaten the Valkyrie 3:27, and this beating was all done in the last hour and a half of sailing.

Both yachts were considerably interfered with by the big excursion steamers as they rounded the outer mark. The steamers had formed a semi-circle around the stake, just as they did around the starting line, but they crowded inconveniently near, and as a result the wind must have been considerably broken.

DEFENDER SETS HER STAYSAIL - After sailing about fifteen minutes the Defender set her staysail, and she carried it at least twenty minutes before those on the Valkyrie discovered what had been done. The sail drew well, too, and must have materially improved the Defender’s speed. Her balloon jibtopsail set perfectly, and Capt. Terry, who attends to the head sails, had it trimmed just right.

The Valkyrie seemed to spill the wind all the way along. The balloon jibtopsail is a sail that the Englishmen use comparatively little. They have an idea that it doesn’t pay to shift from the smaller sails to the large one.

The Defender continued to draw away from the Valkyrie, and when half the journey home had been completed, she had gained at least two minutes more... She went through the water beautifully, and all that was needed to make the picture a perfect one was a little sunshine. It had been gloomy all day long, and about 4:30 it began to rain... Pilot boat No.3 was passed on the journey in, and she ran out of her course to draw near to the Defender and give her a salute of one gun. Then she ran down to the Valkyrie and gave the Englishman a gun.

The Valkyrie in the meantime was coming along a long way behind, and the cheering for the Defender was kept up until the English boat almost got on to the line. Then there was a pause, and as she crossed at 5:29:30 there was more tooting of whistles and firing of guns and cheering for the plucky owner of the Valkyrie. American yachtsmen, as a rule, don’t want  to see the America’s Cup go to England, but if it is to be lost there is no one they would prefer to have win it more than Lord Dunraven. He has made a plucky fight twice for the cup, and it seems almost too bad that he can’t get nearer to the American yacht than he does.

TUESDAY’S TRIANGULAR RACE - After finishing the race both yachts were towed to their anchorages for the night. The next race will be on Tuesday. The course will be an equilateral triangle of ten miles to each leg, the first leg, if possible, being to windward.... The Valkyrie having been painted white, seemed much smaller than when she was black, while the Defender in her blue coat seemed to have swelled out to extraordinary proportions. The Valkyrie had on board Lord Dunraven, George L. Watson, Arthur Glennie, Sailmaker Ratsey, and Latham A. Fish, the representative of the Defender. It is said that Lord Dunraven brought Capt. Sycamore over to do the manoeuvring for the start in the belief that he is the best man in England at that sort of thing.”

Defender & Valkyrie III 7 September 1895

THE NEW YORK TIMES - Wednesday 11 September 1895 - (Excerpts from the article) - “THE VALKYRIE FINISHES IN THE LEAD - Won the Second Cup Race by 47 Seconds, after Fouling the Defender - AMERICAN YACHT’S STARBOARD SPREADER BROKEN - Regatta Committee Will Consider the Protest To-day and Decide Who Is to Blame for the Accident - SMOOTH SEAS AND A TEN-KNOT BREEZE FOR THE RACE - Defender Sailed a Splendid Race in Spite of Her Handicap, and Nearly Caught the Valkyrie - A Big Crowd Watches the Interesting Contest from the Excursion Steamers - Defender Clearly the Better Boat in Reaching - A most unfortunate occurrence marred the second contest for the America’s Cup, which took place off Sandy Hook yesterday. All the conditions were favorable for a close and beautiful struggle between Defender and Valkyrie III.

The sea was as smooth as a mountain lake, and there was a moderate southerly breeze, which increased in force as the day wore on. The conditions were wholly different from those of last Saturday, and were decidedly favorable to the Valkyrie, if her reputation as a light-weather yacht is well founded.

This is not saying that the conditions were unfavourable to the Defender. She is believed to be quite as good in light weather as in a breeze. Consequently, if there was ever to be a close race between the two yachts yesterday was the day for it.

The two racers were early at the cruising ground around the old red lightship, and appeared to the most critical eyes to be fit to race for a kingdom. The lean blue hull of the Defender cut great scars of silver and white in the gloriously blue water as she flashed here and there in her preparatory movements for the start. The round white side of the Valkyrie hurled clouds of foam hither and thither as she raced about the starting point, stretching her lovely white wings and getting the creases out of them in readiness for the fight of her life.

The two yachts had their huge yellow mainsails spread, and their airy club topsails aloft. Forestaysails and jibs were pulling like old-time fire laddies with only one hydrant in sight,  and little baby jib topsails - most telling canvas in a light beat to windward - were puffing their lily cheeks as if they would burst themselves with energy.

Watching Each Twist of the Wind - The rival Captains were watching every twist of the wind, while the assistant Captains were each watching every twist of the opposing yacht. The amateur whose business it is to count seconds, had his watch in his hand and his eyes on the Luckenbach.

Bang! went the preparatory gun. Signals, blue peters, red balls, and other objects flashed confusedly before the eyes of the puzzled landsmen. Now the eager skippers began their manoeuvring for the best position. Capt. Hank Haff ran the Defender off to the southward and westward of the starting line. The Valkyrie was right after him.

Both came around presently and headed toward the starting line. They were running free with the wind on the starboard beam. the Valkyrie ahead and to windward. Old salts said: “Here is where Hank Haff will luff out and be on the Englishman’s weather quarter as they cross the line.” But it was not so to be.

The steamer Yorktown of the Old Dominion Line had just come out to the mark, and she deliberately lay right in the path of the two yachts, making one of the most unpardonable interferences ever seen in American yachting waters. The Valkyrie was able to cross the steamer’s bows, but the Defender had to put her helm hard up in order to avoid running foul of the big iron vessel.

When this incident had passed, the spectators, who for a few moments had been breathless with anxiety, heaved a sigh of relief. But worse was yet to come. The starting signal was almost due, and the two yachts were standing to cross the line. They were plainly bound across on the starboard tack, and now, owing to the Yorktown’s interference, the Defender was in the lee berth and unable to luff across the Valkyrie’s stern.

Both yachts were getting sheets aft and hauling on the wind, when, to the intense amazement of all the spectators, the Valkyrie suddenly put up her helm, and fell off from the course. In an instant she was ramping down on the Defender at a pace that threatened to cut her down if something was not done, and that very quickly.

Smart Jockeying for the Start - When the two yachts were close together, the Valkyrie luffed sharply, and it looked as if her skipper, in his smart jockeying for the start, had tried to run down and blanket the Defender, then luff up and give her the back draught of his sails, thus killing her way while he sped on across the line.

But he miscalculated his distance, for, when he luffed, his main boom swung clear over the Defender’s weather rail, and struck the starboard topmast shroud. Instantly the tackle at the foot of the shroud parted, while at the same time the starboard spreader broke, and the topmast, with the clubtopsail and jibtopsail pulling at it with steam engine power, was left with only the backstay to support it.

The stout spar bent like a trout rod, and every one expected to hear the fatal crash that would tell of Defender’s utter disablement. But with the instant, almost instinctive judgment of an old sailor, Capt. Haff whirled the spokes of his wheel around, putting his helm hard up.

The Defender’s head swiftly fell off to leeward. At the same instant shouts of command were heard, and the jibtopsail sheet and halyard were let go, the downhaul was manned, and half a dozen nimble Deer Island lads flashed out on the bowsprit like shooting stars, and smothered the fluttering canvas as it came down.

Bang! went the starting gun while this was going on, and the Englishman was up and away like a frightened schoolboy who had thrown a stone. He was close-hauled on the starboard tack, slipping through the smooth water like a fat, white duck, and not caring much whether the other duck was lame.

Yankee Yacht Not Dead - But the Yankee yacht was not dead yet, by any means. She came up on the wind as soon as her head sail was in and started across the line. She flew a protest flag, meaning that she claimed a foul, and wished to have the Earl of Dunraven disqualified for spiking her. But she had no time to tarry then. Her crew were gazing at the Valkyrie’s stern, just one minute and two seconds ahead, and it is not a pretty stern, anyhow.

Up the mast, clawing the masthoops like an angry cat, went a white-garbed sailor man. There was one fellow up there already, sitting on the strut waiting for just such trouble as this. That is what he was there for. Down below on the deck skilled hands were making the shroud fast again at the chain plates, and the two men aloft began to put a stout lashing on it to hold it to the broken spreader.

After a time that seemed almost endless to the anxious patriots who were watching Valkyrie’s jibtopsail tow her ahead, the Defender’s people thought they were in shape to put strain on their topmast once more, so away went the baby jibtopsail aloft, and the patriots almost screamed with delight as they thought: “Now our yacht will catch the Englishman.” But conservative sailor men, who have seen strained topmasts before, waited a little to see.

Alas! the wounded stick could not stand the pressure, and down came the little worker from aloft. And now a great, gloomy silence settled down over the accompanying fleet, for a new sight was seen on the face of the water. Inch by inch, foot by foot, yard by yard, the Valkyrie crept out to windward. An English yacht was beating us to a weather mark in a light-weather contest.

There was no talk of outpointing now. It looked as if the Valkyrie was outpointing the Defender, for on each successive tack she was further to windward. But it was all done by speed, and the little joker aloft was the winning sail. The windward mark was reached about 1 o’clock, and then not only the eye but the watch loudly proclaimed that the Valkyrie was half a mile dead ahead.

Valkyrie Breaks Out Balloon Jib - Round the fluttering red-and-white flag flew the Englishman, and in a little while out broke the great swelling balloon jibtopsail. Every eye was now fastened on the Defender. A dozen sailors were forward passing out a long, festooned piece of canvas.

“Hurrah!” cried the patriots, “They’re all right. They’re passing out the balloon jibtopsail, and, when that goes up, down goes John Bull!”

Presently the sail, in stops, stole up the jibtopsail stay. Suddenly it stopped. It did not reach the masthead by many feet, nor did it come down to the bowsprit. A groan broke from the patriots. It was only a baby jibtopsail, and what could a little Billy Edwards like that do with a great Charley Mitchell of a balloon jibtopsail like the Englishman’s?

“She’ll run away from our boat on the second leg,” was the general verdict.

Did she? Why, the Defender just broke out a balloon forestaysail and hung in the wake of the Valkyrie like that villain that “still pursued her.” If she had had a good old-fashioned jib stowed in her locker, she would have been on the Englishman’s heels at the second mark. The manner in which Defender sailed on the second leg was simply glorious, and was proof beyond all possibility of question that in running off the wind she can get so far away from the Englishman that the latter cannot find her wake. Lamed as she was, she actually ran the ten miles in 16 seconds less than the Valkyrie.

Then came the reach to the finish. Now patriotic hearts rose. The yachts had to swing their sails all over to starboard on this leg, and so the strain was off the Defender’s injured shroud and spreader. True the topmast had been strained, but now there were a good shroud and a backstay to support it. It was not many minutes before the true speed of the American champion began to show itself.

“She’s gaining! She’s gaining!” cried the patriots. And so she was at a  most amazing pace. No one called the yellow dog bad names now, and no one wondered whether it was bad luck to have the commander’s wife aboard. It was plain to see that our yacht could beat the Britisher, and every one said: “Whether the committee gives him this race or not, we’ll keep the cup, and that’s what we’re all here for.”

Defender’s Steady Gain - Slowly and steadily the Defender lessened the gap, but it was too big to be closed in ten miles. If the last leg had been fifteen miles the Defender would have crossed the line first. But it was not so to be, and a little before 3 o’clock the Valkyrie with her creamy sails making crescents against the warm blue sky, wide streamers of silver spray spreading from under her lean forefoot, and a smother of swirling foam shooting from under her counter, went tearing across the line, while guns thundered, whistles shrieked, and people cheered, just to show an Englishman that Americans can take a beating and come up smiling.

But there were cheers for the Defender, for had she not shown the world a grand up-hill fight? They say an Englishman never knows when he is whipped. Does an American? Or does he stop fighting because he thinks he is whipped? Over the line flashed the pale-blue streak, and the Defender finished second by the narrow margin of forty-seven seconds, corrected time. Not since the Columbia broke down and the Livonia won a race away back in 1871 had an English yacht finished first in a race for the America’s Cup. And so it was all over, except the talking and the decision of the Regatta Committee, and the patriots went home pretty well satisfied that they had the faster boat of the two.

The Regatta Committee posted this notice in the Clubhouse last night, but no action will be taken on the protest until to-day:

The Defender protests the Valkyrie on the ground that she bore down on her just before reaching the starting line, thereby causing a foul, which resulted in the carrying away of her spreader and the springing of her topmast. REGATTA COMMITTEE.”

THE YACHTS GETTING UNDER WAY - Sailed Down to the Starting Point Under Plenty of Canvas - The yachts left their anchorage off Bay Ridge in tow before 8 o’clock. At that hour the sun was trying to “scotch” the clouds in the east, but there was a heavy cloudbank in the west, and down through the Narrows the outlook was obscured by what sailors call thick weather. That is to say, there was a mist over the water.

However, there was a nice little breeze coming up from the south, and an hour later the mist had cleared away, leaving only a smoky haze. By 8:30 the yachts were well in the lower bay. Few steam yachts were then on the move, and a fleet of sailing yachts, both sloops and schooners, were beating down by Fort Lafayette.

On account of their great draught, the yachts had to go down through the ship channel, which took them down by the point of the Hook, while the attendant procession of steamers and tugs took a short cut through the Swash Channel. Still they had so much of a lead that they reached the lightship ahead of nearly everything. They were at the lightship before 10 o’clock, and as sail had been made leisurely on the way down, clubtopsails were already aloft.

An Immense Spread of Canvas - Some idea of the immense spread of canvas carried by these yachts may be had from the fact that it was noticeable as the steamship Lahn passed the Valkyrie that the latter’s clubtopsail towered away above the former’s lofty masts. The Valkyrie seemed to be carrying a larger clubtopsail than that she used Saturday, but the Defender’s was the same. Indeed, the Defender carried the same suit of sails she had on Saturday, and there was the same contrast between the white clubtopsail and the dark-colored mainsail. She, however, instead of setting the intermediate jibtopsail carried then, followed the Valkyrie’s example, and ran up a baby jibtopsail.

There was a moderate south wind blowing, perhaps, nine miles an hour, while the sea was almost as smooth as a millpond.

HOW THE RACE WAS SAILED - Details of Defender’s Lively Chase After Valkyrie - The sea was as smooth as glass outside Sandy Hook, and the wind was light, and coming from the south, and every one who got out to see the second race between the Valkyrie and the Defender remarked that it was perfect Valkyrie weather. Saturday was supposed to be a good day for Valkyrie. The wind then was light, lighter than it was yesterday, but there was quite a sea, or, as an old salt put it, there were holes in the water, and nobody knew just where these holes were, and consequently kept tumbling into them.

There was no sea to bother the Valkyrie yesterday. The wind at the start was blowing about six miles an hour, and it gradually increased, until at the end it was blowing about twelve, and the light-weather boat, as she is regarded here, was expected to distinguish herself if she ever did.

After the Regatta Committee on board the Luckenbach had signaled the course and sent off a tug to lay the outer marks, the yachts began to manoeuvre round, and wait for the preparatory signal. This signal was given promptly at 10:50, the advertised time, and both yachts were then north of the line and both on the starboard tack.

The Defender was more to the eastward, and, directly after the gun was fired, she came about on the port tack, heading up toward the Valkyrie.

Valkyrie tacked, too, and, as the boats drew together, she was on the Defender’s windward quarter. Both yachts had their jibtopsails in stops, and, after holding on this tack for a short time, they wore round and headed to the northward again. They held this way for about two minutes, and then, jibing over, they hauled on the wind, and began to stand down for the mark.

Excursion Boat in the Way - Then the steamship Yorktown, with a crowd of excursionists on board, for some reason or other steamed in between the two yachts.

After the Yorktown had got out of the way both yachts were heading toward the committee boat, or westward end of the line, on the starboard tack. The Valkyrie was in the lead and to windward of the Defender. Capt. Sycamore had the tiller, while on the American boat Capt. Haff was at the wheel.

Both Captains were watching each other and watching their own boats. They were ready to take any opportunity that offered them to get the better position at the start. So far the honors were with the Valkyrie.

As they approached the line Capt. Sycamore bore somewhat off his course, and then luffed up sharply again, evidently with the intention of spoiling the Defender’s wind.

Capt. Haff  held the Defender straight for the line, and as the Valkyrie came up in the wind again her big steel boom swung out and caught in the starboard topmast shroud of the Defender, pulling it out of the spreader. For a moment it looked as though the topmast would be carried out of the American boat.

Defender’s Topmast Buckles - The stick buckled under the weight of the clubtopsail and the jibtopsail, but in an instant Capt. Haff threw over his wheel, the yacht spun around on the port tack, and, the strain being taken off the disabled shrouds, the stick was saved. Then the Deer Island sailors had to do some lively work.

The jibtopsail was taken in, two men were sent up on the spreader, and while the starboard shroud was slack they lashed it out on the end of the starboard spreader and made it as firm as they possibly could. In the meantime the Valkyrie had shot across the line well down toward the western end. She was on the starboard tack and was footing fast. They had to make quick time on the Defender in order to avoid being handicapped. The starting gun had been fired, and but for the mishap they would have been across the line right in the stern of the Valkyrie, and the two boats would have been having it nip and tuck for the windward work.

The damage was quickly repaired so far as possible, and while the two men were still on the spreader trying to complete their work, the Defender was put about again, and she headed for the line on the same tack as the Valkyrie. The times taken as the two yachts crossed the line were:

Valkyrie - 11:00:13

Defender - 11:01:15

The Defender had lost a minute at the start. The minute would not count against her, because she had two minutes in which to cross the line, but she had lost a good position, for if the mishap had not happened she would have been but a few seconds worse off than the Valkyrie, whereas she was now considerably to the leeward of the English boat.

Making Most of Their Advantage - On the Valkyrie they were making the most of the advantage they had thus far gained. The men were all lying up to windward as flat on deck as it was possible for them to get. Capt. Sycamore, at the tiller, was crouching down to leeward of the big stick, and he was glancing first up at the headsails and then casting an eye to the leeward to see the Defender.

On the Defender nearly all the crew were in their proper positions. Hank Haff was kneeling down in his old position to leeward of the wheel, C. Oliver Iselin was tending his jibsheet, Mrs. Iselin was in her old position in the companionway, with her head just above deck, and Mate Miller and two seamen were trying to fix up the damage done and make the shroud as strong as they possibly could. A seaman went forward and hoisted the red flag standing for the letter “B” in the starboard rigging. This was the signal that the Defender protested, and those on the committee boat signaled back that the protest was noted.

This tack was a very short one, and thirty seconds after the handicap gun had been fired the Defender tacked to port. The Valkyrie spun round five seconds later, and the two yachts were then heading westsouthwest in toward the Highlands. Capt. Haff probably tacked so quickly in order that the men on the spreader might be able to work easily without there being any strain on the shroud. The Valkyrie, in the meantime, was holding on her course and pointing high and quickly widening the gap between the two yachts.

The Defender was without her jibtopsail, and it was a day that jibtopsails counted for a good deal. The Valkyrie’s jibtopsail was drawing beautifully. Capt. Haff gave the Defender a rapful, intending to romp her off and outfoot the Englishman with the idea of possibly making up what he had lost to windward. They held on this port tack until they had passed the Scotland Lightship, and then, at 11:24:30, the Defender tacked to starboard and was followed fifteen seconds later by the English boat.

Valkyrie Considerably Ahead - It was seen then that the Valkyrie was considerably ahead and about 300 yards to windward of the Defender, and the Defender was in a mighty bad place. Her wind was being broken and every minute she was getting further and further away from the English boat. The outlook was anything but bright, but those who were watching the race consoled themselves by saying that but for the accident things would be different.

Valkyrie was doing remarkably well, and she was proving that in the weather for which she is supposed to have been built she is a very slippery craft. She was footing fast, pointing high, and going through the water leaving very little fuss, and making very little wave forward. The Defender was going along in the old style for which she has become famous, but in her crippled condition she was unable to cope fairly with the Englishman. This tack off shore lasted for just five minutes, and then both spun round on the port tack, heading again in toward the shore. The damage had been repaired as far as possible on the Defender. A big bunch of rope on the end of the spreader marked where the shroud was lashed to the spar. But lash it as firmly as they could it was nothing like as taut as when it was passed through the hole and held in place by the bolts.

As soon as they got well away on this tack, one of the Deer Island sailors went out on the end of the bowsprit, and everybody watched to see what was going to happen next. Then another followed, and another, until there were six men out there, and they were seen passing out a sail. “They are going to set a jibtopsail,” shouted a Defender enthusiast, “now we’ll see how she’ll beat the Englishman.”

The sail was passed out quickly, run up the stay, and at 11:33:15, a No.2 jibtopsail was broken out. The men got back into their positions, and for a short time it looked as though all was well, but after carrying the sail just two minutes, the men went out again, and the sail was taken in. The strain was too much for the mast in its weakened condition. Men went up on the spreader again, and more lashing was done. This constant moving about on board the Defender was a serious handicap to the boat, as it upset the trim of the craft, and she was not steady, and then the shrouds not being as taut as they ought to have been. It was impossible to get the club topsail perfectly flat, and that was not drawing as well as it might.

Defender’s Wonderful Race - Taking all these things into consideration, the Defender was sailing a wonderful race, and some who saw her good performance when reaching last Saturday remembered that the second and third legs of the course yesterday were both reaches, and they thought it quite possible that the American boat would make up then what she had lost to windward.

Capt. Haff kept on giving the Defender a good rap full, and she footed as fast as the Valkyrie, but was sagging down to leeward. It was the only thing for him to do under the conditions. The wind was freshening, and some yachtsmen hoped it would freshen so that the Valkyrie would have to take in her jibtopsail, or that the two yachts would have to take in their clubtopsails, and then they would be on even terms.

At 11:53:50 the Defender tacked to starboard, and the Valkyrie followed just ten seconds later. The Valkyrie was then a third of a mile in the lead, and she quickly increased this to half a mile at noon. They held on this tack for just seventeen minutes, and at 12:10:30 Capt. Haff threw the wheel on the American yacht over and brought her about on the port tack. She was heading then toward the Jersey coast again.

The Valkyrie followed the Defender just fifteen seconds later, Capt. Cranfield evidently intending to keep right on the American boat’s weather as long as he possibly could. The wind was holding true. It was just what the Englishmen had been asking for, and it was getting stronger and stronger every minute. It was still a light breeze, though, but the yachts were making wonderful speed under the conditions.

The port tack was a short one, and at 12:18:30 the Valkyrie tacked to starboard, being followed five seconds later by the American boat. The Defender was then right in the Valkyrie’s wake, but was at least half a mile behind. Both were then on the starboard tack, standing out to sea. Two thirds of the distance to the first mark had now been covered, and the Defender was not being beaten nearly as badly as many had expected she would be, and, allowing for her crippled condition, it was generally conceded that in light weather the two boats are wonderfully close when going to windward, and that the boat that gets the weather position at the start will probably hold it to the end if the wind holds true.

The Yachts Begin to Heel a Little - The wind by this time was blowing about ten knots an hour, and under the freshening breeze both yachts began to heel a little, the Valkyrie appearing to be a little more tender than the Defender, but this could be caused by the extra sail which the Valkyrie was carrying.

The fleet of excursion steamers gave the yachts a good show. They kept well astern of them, and there was no cause for complaint from either boat. The fleet of patrol boats headed the procession following the two racers, and kept the course clear as the yachts went off on the different tacks, Mr. H. M. Flagler’s steam yacht Alicia looking after the starboard tack, and Mr. John H. Hanan’s steam yacht Embia taking care of the port tack. They had little difficulty, however, in keeping the excursionists back, as all seemed to be disposed to give the boats a fair show.

A man was sent aloft on the Defender again shortly after they went on this tack, and the spreader and mast were carefully examined. He came down again, however, without doing anything. By 12:30 the stake boat was in sight. The Valkyrie was then being driven for all she was worth, and every stitch of canvas was pulling for all it was worth. Little flecks of white foam made their appearance on top of the tiny waves, and down in the southward where the yachts were going to there was every indication of the wind being much fresher.

The Valkyrie made much more fuss in the water than she did at the start. The water boiled up under her bow, and on her lee side that big wave began to make its appearance, and behind her she left a long, foamy wake. She was going fast, too, and was heading straight for the stake. About half a mile astern of her the Defender was flying after her.

Stern Chase for the American - A stern chase at any time is a long chase, and an unpleasant one, too, but under crippled conditions like those of the Defender yesterday it must be exceedingly unpleasant to see the leading boat gradually getting further and further away. The excursionists were quiet, too, but they were watching every move made on the two yachts, and they were anxious to see what would be done after turning the first mark.   Through the Defender not setting her jibtopsail, it was thought that possibly her topmast was sprung, and in that case she would not be able to carry her big balloon jib topsail when reaching. This would be another serious handicap for the American boat.

As they drew near to the outer mark both yachts began to pinch in order to fetch. Capt. Cranfield kept on jamming his yacht out to windward, and Capt. Haff, too, was taking advantage of every little puff to shoot Defender up as far as possible in the same direction. It looked at first as though neither boat would fetch, but by a series of luffs and continued pinching both were able to do so without making another tack. The times taken as they rounded the first mark at the end of the ten miles beat to windward were as follows:

Valkyrie - 12:57:43

Defender - 1:01:35

The Valkyrie rounded the mark 3 minutes and 52 seconds ahead of the Defender. It had taken the Valkyrie 1 hour 57 minutes and 30 seconds to beat the ten miles. It had taken the Defender 2 hours and 20 seconds, so that on actual sailing the Valkyrie had beaten the Defender two minutes and fifty seconds.

“Rooters” Take Hope - The “rooters” for the Defender immediately began to take hope. Two minutes and fifty seconds wasn’t much to have to make up in twenty miles. Twenty-nine seconds had to be taken off from this, anyhow, that being the allowance the Valkyrie had to give the American boat, so that the Defender had only to make up two minutes and twenty-one seconds on two reaches of ten miles each - a little over a minute on each leg would win the race for her yet.

The second leg was to the northeast by east. The wind, still from the south, was over the starboard quarter. The Valkyrie eased her boom off as she rounded, took in her small jibtopsail, and sent the balloon up in stops. It was broken out just four minutes after she passed the stake - a very smart piece of work.

The Defender began to send a baby jibtopsail up in stops before she rounded the mark, and after she rounded broke it out. There was a groan heard on all sides as this small sail appeared. Every one had expected a balloon, but as the yachts were still on the starboard tack, and it was the starboard spreader that had broken, to have put a big balloon jibtopsail would probably have carried away the topmast.

One old skipper, as he watched the sail come out, remarked: “I’d have set the balloon and taken the risk. If the stick stood then she’d overhaul the Valkyrie. If the stick broke, then she’d be in no worse position than she is now.”

The staysail was taken in on the Defender, and a balloon staysail set in its place. The staysail and jib were both taken in on the Valkyrie, and then both yachts were speeding toward the second mark at the rate of ten knots an hour. The Valkyrie seemed to draw ahead. It was only natural that she should. Her immense balloon jibtopsail was drawing beautifully. It was not sheeted home as flat as it was last Saturday, and they seemed to have taken a wrinkle or two from the Americans on the way to handle this big piece of canvas.

The Valkyrie as she went through the water made more of a fuss than she had during any part of the day. She dragged a great big wave behind her, and this wave must have seriously retarded her progress. She threw considerable water with her bow and lots of it fell on the deck forward. The Valkyrie seemed to be heading off her course a little. This was probably due to the pressure of wind in her balloon, while the Defender was sailing straight for the mark, and at one time it looked as though she would get so far to windward of the Valkyrie as to break the Englishman’s wind.

Yachts Make Fast Time - The yachts made rattling good time on this leg, and by 1:45 the second mark was plainly in sight. Five minutes later the balloon on the Valkyrie was taken in, and a No.2 jibtopsail set up in its place. It took four minutes to change these sails, and the Defender was able to close up considerably of the gap between the two boats. The Valkyrie’s sheet was trimmed in a little and she hauled on the wind in order to weather the second mark. The times taken as the two yachts jibed were as follows:

Valkyrie - 1:58:10

Defender - 2:01:45

The elapsed times for the ten miles’ reach were: Defender, 1 hour 10 seconds; Valkyrie, 1 hour 27 seconds. So that the Defender had gained seventeen seconds on the broad reach.

Valkyrie Sailing Like a Witch - The Valkyrie was sailing like a witch. She heeled gracefully in the water and fairly flew on toward the outer mark. It seemed impossible to make up the time wanted in the short distance of ten miles with the English boat traveling as she was, but the Defender was making a desperate effort, and she was reaching as she had never reached before under those conditions.

Slowly but surely she began to cut down the space between the two boats. The excursion steamers gave her a wide berth, in order that she might have the benefit of every ounce of wind that she could get. They were hurrying on toward the mark as fast as they could go, and if the Defender could get near enough to win, she  would get a rousing welcome. The yachts were traveling so fast that some of the tugs and steamers were being left behind, while others, and boats that are reputed to be fast, too, were doing their utmost to keep ahead.

The lightship gradually loomed up in the distance, and it seemed altogether too near to those who wanted the Defender to win. To the Englishmen and to the admirers of the Valkyrie it still seemed to be miles away, and, as they looked ahead and then looked behind to see the American boat coming, they began to think that the race was lost after all. The committee boat steamed on and anchored in position to take the finishing line, and the steamers congregated around the line, everybody wondering which boat would win. The excitement was intense, and it was anybody’s race.

On came the Valkyrie, speeding toward the mark as fast as she could be driven by Capt. Cranfield, and behind her, rapidly closing up the gap, was the Defender, being driven as fast as it was possible to drive her, by Capt. Haff. Lord Dunraven and his friends on the Valkyrie were watching ahead for the lightship, and then they cast furtive glances behind to see how near the American yacht was getting to them. On the American boat Mr. Iselin was watching ahead, first looking at the Valkyrie and gauging how they were running up on her, and then glancing further on toward the lightship, evidently wishing it was a mile or two further away.

If the Defender could win the race it would be a great achievement, after the way she was handicapped at the start, and every body on board realizing this was doing his best to succeed. The water was just boiling under the two yachts’ bows, and it was piling along the lee rail of the Defender more than it had at any time during the race. The crews on both boats were flattening themselves on the decks as they never flattened themselves before.

A Fast Half Mile - It was only a half a mile to the lightship, and the Defender had already closed up about half the distance there was between the two at the outer mark. The Valkyrie kept on and on and passed through the lane of vessels that had congregated at the finish, and at 2:55:22 she shot across the line and was greeted by a tooting of whistles that is always given to the first yacht home. After crossing the line she came up in the wind and those on board watched to see the Defender coming along.

Everybody had his watch out, and everybody began to count off the seconds after the Valkyrie had crossed. The difference between the two yachts at the start, 1 minute and 2 seconds, soon went and the yacht was fast approaching the finish. It seemed for a while as though the allowance would cut an important factor in the race, but that, too, soon disappeared, and the Defender had not crossed the line. She was a beaten boat, and she crossed at 2:57:40, just 2 minutes and 12 seconds behind the Valkyrie. The last ten miles reach had been made by the Defender in 0:55:55. The Valkyrie’s time was 0:57:12, so that the Defender had beaten the Valkyrie by 1 minute and 17 seconds. The elapsed time of the two boats was:

Valkyrie - 3:55:00

Defender - 3:56:25

On elapsed time the Valkyrie had beaten the Defender 1 minute and 16 seconds, but the English boat had to allow the Defender 29 seconds, so that the corrected time was:

Valkyrie - 3:55:00

Defender - 3:55:56

On corrected time the Valkyrie beat the Defender 47 seconds. The Defender was greeted as if she were a winner. Guns were fired, whistles were tooted, and cheers were given for the American boat, and then all the excursion steamers crowded around the committee boat in order to see the official time, many hoping that a mistake had been made, and that the Defender was the winner after all. There was no such luck, though, for the figures hung out on board the Luckenbach showed that the Defender was beaten by the small margin already mentioned.

The two yachts proceeded up the harbor under their own sails. The City of Bridgeport, the Valkyrie’s tender, followed along behind her, towing along W. G. Brokaw’s schooner Amorita. Several members of the Amorita crew are on board the Valkyrie. The Bridgeport was kept busy all the way up the bay answering the salutes given to the Englishmen by the excursion steamers, and then these steamers would run along beside the Defender and cheer the American boat and crew. Mrs. Iselin waved her handkerchief in answer to the salutes, and the members of the crew cheered back. The yachts sailed up to Bay Ridge and anchored there for the night.

There were many spectacular features to the race. Not the least of them was the first - the fouling of Defender by Valkyrie. To some who saw it, it looked as though Pudd’nhead Wilson’s advice to follow suit or trump, but take the trick, had been read by Capt. Cranfield and taken by him to heart.

That incident, which has been fully described in another column, was followed by a series of views, beautiful as any of the kind ever witnessed, and all of which should have been painted.

One of the prettiest of the lot was when Valkyrie rounded the first mark, and broke the stops of her balloon jib.   The silky folds of that immense piece of canvas swelled up and out, and then dropped in, to swell out again. As the sunlight slipped along the folds, and shadows dipped into the hollows, the graceful fabric, from a bow-on view, took on the appearance of a languid skirt dancer just before the tune and step are taken. Then the sheet of the big sail was hauled aft, the folds ceased to flow, and, caught by the breeze, the sail swelled out, rounded and still.

THE ENGLISH YACHTSMEN RETICENT - Capts. Cranfield and Sycamore Would Not Talk of the Accident - To those adherents of the Valkyrie whose faith has lived in honest doubt as to the superiority of the Defender over the British racer, the result of yesterday’s contest was unsatisfactory, judging from the reticence which the English people saw fit to maintain. The Baltic, the New-York Times tug, steamed twice around the British boat.

As she appeared on the starboard hand, Capt. Cranfield and Capt. Sycamore hastened to the opposite side. The Baltic went around to port, and immediately both Captains dived below.

Representatives from both yachts went aboard the committee’s boat as soon as that vessel appeared. All information concerning the protest was refused by members of the committee.

The Defender was hailed, and Mr. W. Butler Duncan replied. When asked if the boat’s topmast was sprung, he said that the topmast was sprung, but that the mast was all right. In reply to another question, he said that the Defender would be ready for the race to-morrow, as scheduled. He refused to say whose fault had caused the mishap.

Mr. Iselin was seen after the race and asked if the boom of the Valkyrie carried away the topmast shroud. He said that it did, and that it carried away the jaws of the starboard spreader. When asked if the Valkyrie was not bearing down upon him, he replied:

“I do not care to make any statement until I have laid the case before the committee.”

Mr. Iselin said that he expected to be able to replace the topmast with a new spar to-day.”

THE NEW YORK TIMES - Wednesday 11 September 1895 - “.... It was known all over New York not long after noon that a collision had occurred between the Valkyrie and the Defender in crossing the line. The circumstances were not known, but the presumption was against the Valkyrie simply because the Defender was the sufferer...... it has been felt to be deplorable that any question should arise between the yachts themselves or any doubt be thrown on the good faith of either skipper. As yet, none has been. I have not heard a suggestion that Captain Cranfield did not believe himself within his strict right. Still, the notion that the injured boat was probably right is general, and it is thought that, if Captain Cranfield had felt it his duty to give way a second or two earlier, a collision might have been avoided. One account makes a steamer primarily responsible for the accident at the start. The Defender should have been to windward of the Valkyrie when she came about above the mark, but the steamer forced her to fall off, and the Valkyrie slipped into the weather berth. Then as the Defender filled away after escaping the steamer the Valkyrie’s spreaders and weather boom caught the Defender’s shroud. In the preliminary manoeuvring the Valkyrie fouled the Defender. The fouling appears to be caused by the Valkyrie’s being forced too close to the judge’s tug, so that in weathering it her gaff or spreaders struck the Defender’s shrouds and carried them away.“



THE MANCHESTER GUARDIAN - Wednesday 11 September 1895 - “THE AMERICA CUP - A VICTORY FOR THE ENGLISH YACHT “- .... taken from the above New York Times article.... adding, “The American champion nevertheless continued to race under protest.”

Valkyrie III - 10 September 1895.jpg

THE SAN FRANCISCO CALL - Thursday 12 September 1895 - “FOULED BY THE VALKYRIE - Protest of the Defender Sustained by the Committee - GIVEN THE SECOND RACE - Cranfield Violated the Rules When He Crashed Into the American - CRANFIELD WAS AT FAULT - NEW YORK, N.Y., Sept. 11 - The regatta committee of the New York Yacht Club rendered a decision late this afternoon, sustaining Mr. Iselin’s protest against the Valkyrie and awarding yesterday’s race to the Defender. This result was reached after deliberations and conferences lasting practically all day. As the occurrence was directly under the eyes of the committee, and was also witnessed by thousands of spectators, there was only one decision possible.

Every one conversant with the racing of yachts and rules of the road at sea agreed that the British yacht was at fault. Lord Dunraven and his friends, however, held that his boat was crowded by the Defender and that the accident was unavoidable.

The committee gave each side ample opportunity to state its case, and took the testimony of the crew of each yacht and of others who were on board.

It was 4:30 p.m. when the decision was announced. It was in the term of a reply to Mr. Iselin’s protest and reads as follows:

Mr. C. Oliver Iselin: We beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of yesterday protesting Valkyrie. We have given the matter our careful consideration and believe that the foul occurred through the miscalculation of distance between the two yachts at a critical moment.

From our observation, sustained by that of others who were in a good position to see, we find that the Valkyrie, in contravention of section 2 of racing rule 16, bore down upon the Defender and fouled her by the swinging of her main boom when luffing to straighten her course. We also consider that the Defender allowed the Valkyrie sufficient room to windward to pass clear of the committee boat.

Your protest is therefore sustained.

Section 2 of the same rule says: A yacht free shall keep clear of one close-hauled.

The rule covering disqualification is: If a yacht in consequence of her neglect of any of these rules shall foul another yacht or compel another yacht to foul any yacht, mark or obstruction, or to run aground, she shall be disqualified and shall pay all damages.

As stated in these dispatches yesterday, the Defender gave the Valkyrie plenty of room to cross the line, and it was only the Valkyrie’s bearing away to prevent crossing before the gun fire that caused the fouling. The Valkyrie was to windward and close to the committee boat end of the line. She was running freer than the Defender and was leading slightly. She was lapping the committee boat, and going toward the line at a pace that would probably have carried her over before the signal. To avoid this she bore away to leeward and eased out on her sheets in order to spill the wind and check her headway.

The change of course brought her within a biscuit-toss of the American boat. The latter held her course. The British skipper, to avoid a collision which seemed inevitable, luffed up, and the Valkyrie’s boom did the damage to the Defender. He violated the rules by bearing away and by failing to keep clear of the Defender, a yacht close hauled. Such is the verdict of the committee and also of all competent judges on the attendant fleet.

Captain Cranfield of the Valkyrie holds that the fault lay with Captain Haff of the Defender, and insists that he could sail no closer to the end of the line without fouling the committee boat. Lord Dunraven accepts the decision, and will have the Valkyrie at the line to-morrow for the third international race.

The regatta committee posted the following:

To Members of the New York Yacht Club: Your committee beg to state, before arriving at a decision on the Defender’s protest, that they endeavored to bring about a mutual agreement between the respective yachts to resail yesterday’s race, but each preferred that the committee should pass judgment on the protest. -THE   REGATTA COMMITTEE.

Lord Dunraven left the clubhouse after the hearing. He declined to talk. Messrs. Kersey, Glennie and Ratsey of the English contingent were equally reticent.

After the long session of the regatta committee was ended, Mr. Grinnell, one of the members of the committee, was asked if there was any question that Lord Dunraven would race to-morrow, in view of the published reports that he would not do so if the decision should be adverse to the Valkyrie.

 No,” replied Mr. Grinnell. “He accepted the decision as any true sportsman should. He did say, however, that he would not race unless the course was kept clear of excursion boats. Some of these boats behaved very badly yesterday, and Lord Dunraven was emphatic in his protests against them.”

J. V. S. Oddie, secretary of the New York club, said that he was much pleased with the decision, and that he thought all who saw the fouling would acquiesce in the committee’s view of it.

Both the Defender and Valkyrie were drydocked at Erie basin to-day to fit them for to-morrow’s race. The Defender went to the dock to repair the injuries received at the start of yesterday’s race, and the Valkyrie went in for another coat of pot lead on her bottom.

The Defender’s cracked topmast and starboard spreader were taken down. The horn of the spreader was broken entirely off, while the topmast had a split in it about one-third of the distance up from the mainmast head. Another spar to take its place has been brought to the basin. It is not a new spar, but one made for the Colonia.   Captain Haff said it would answer the purpose all right. It weighs 400 pounds less than the old stick.

The damaged spreader was also taken down. Its overboard end looked as though it had been chewed off.

The Defender’s water line will not be remeasured; the Valkyrie’s will. Eighteen pigs of lead, weighing one and a quarter tons, were removed from her hold to-day and she will be set higher in the water. Probably the difference in the water line measurement will wipe out the 29 1-10 seconds allowance which she gives the Defender. John Hyslop, the official measurer of the New York Yacht Club, was at the drydock all the afternoon waiting for the Valkyrie to be floated, but when she was still resting on the blocks at 7:00 this evening he went away as it was too dark to take the measurements.

The new topmasts of the Defender were set on end at 5 o’clock. The spreader was replaced by a new one and the shrouds were put in place. It was 9 o’clock before the yachts were floated.

To-morrow’s race will be fifteen miles to windward and return. The start will be from Sandy Hook lightship, unless the committee established another starting point in order to obtain a windward course of fifteen miles. The same rules that governed the first two races will prevail. Should the Defender win to-morrow the America cup will remain here another year at least and the international yachting contest of 1895 will be closed.

MAY BE RESAILED - Captain Haff Makes a Generous Declaration Regarding the Decision - The Tribune to-morrow will say: When it was announced to Captain Haff that the regatta committee had decided in favor of the Defender he exclaimed: “That’s right. And now the Defender will refuse to take the race on a foul and will offer to sail it over again.”

The Tribune to-morrow will also say: “Mr. Iselin is reported as having said to-day concerning the possibility of a resail of the race: “I don’t know why I should do anything like this. It would not be sportsmanlike for me to give up an advantage after it had been officially awarded me under such circumstances. I will not say anything for publication.”

ACCEPTS THE DECISION - Lord Dunraven Again Demonstrates His True Sportsmanship - Late to-night in an interview Lord Dunraven when asked if the report was true that he would not race any more on account of the adverse decision of the regatta committee most emphatically said it was not, and added:

“I shall enter the race to-morrow as a sportsman, because I have no occasion to do otherwise. I believe in the ability and honesty of the regatta committee of the New York Yacht Club. I believe that no effort has been made to influence their decision. I believe them to be gentlemen and yachtsmen, and while I don’t care to say anything about the Valkyrie I yet think that Mr. Watson has fulfilled his engagements to build me a good boat.

“I don’t expect that Mr. Iselin will offer a chance for a resail or anything of that sort. While it is very certain that the America cup is lost by reason of Valkyrie’s showing, it is not so certain that at some time the cup may not be carried across the Atlantic.”

Mr. Glennie said: “Every fellow thinks he is right, and we thought we were. We’ll be at the starting line to-morrow and have another try.”

The Chronicle will say to-morrow: We confess we see no reason in the facts placed before the committee for the decision giving the race to the Defender. The foul occurred before the starting gun was fired and before the line was crossed. The Defender might have backed out, but she elected to race. Had the Valkyrie wilfully fouled the Defender during the race the penalty could not have been greater. The committee’s explanation does not improve matters. We should not be surprised if Lord Dunraven declared the rest of the races off and refuses to compete again, but if he consents to continue, as we hope he will, Thursday’s race will probably settle the matter, as there is not much doubt now that the Defender is the faster.“

THE NEW YORK TIMES - Thursday 12 September 1895 - GLASGOW, Sept. 11 - The Mail to-morrow will say: “The decision of the committee is sure to be challenged in this country. It is certain that all Americans who have the true interests of sport at heart will receive the verdict with dismay. Had the committee declared the race void on account of a technical breach, few persons would be disposed to cavil, but surely they have overstepped the bounds of fair play in awarding the race to the Defender. This seriously handicaps the British yacht, and robs future races of all interest as international contests.”

PROTEST IS SUSTAINED - Defender Awarded the Second Race for the Cup - VALKYRIE DISQUALIFIED - All Efforts to Have the Race Called Off Failed - MR. ISELIN’S ACTION CRITICISED - Considered Unsportsmanlike and Injurious to Future International Yachting - The protest of C. Oliver Iselin against the Valkyrie was sustained by the Regatta Committee, and the race sailed on Tuesday in which the Valkyrie finished first, has been awarded to the Defender. It was late yesterday afternoon when the Regatta Committee rendered its decision, and the result pleased some and was criticised by others. Of course the Defender people were elated. All the Summer they have almost regarded everything as theirs by right, and have shown a disposition to win by hook or crook, and they succeeded in beating Vigilant on two occasions by straining the yachting rules.

Lord Dunraven and those on the Valkyrie took the adverse decision philosophically, and showed that they are sportsmen in the strict sense of the word."

THE NEW YORK TIMES - Friday 13 September 1895 - “LORD DUNRAVEN GIVES UP THE CONTEST - Last of the America’s Cup Races This Year Simply a Walk-over for the Defender - VALKYRIE CROSSED THE LINE, THEN TURNED BACK - Because No Guarantee of Non-Interference by the Pleasure Fleet Was Given, Dunraven Decided Not to Race - ALSO HE RECEIVED NO REPLY FROM THE REGATTA COMMITTEE - He Had Asked that the Course Be Kept Clear - Will Consider an Offer to Race off Marblehead - Thousands of Spectators on Excursion Boats and Steam Yachts Were Disappointed and Astonished at English Boat’s Action - The American champion yacht Defender sailed alone yesterday in the last of three races for the America’s Cup. She had what is known to sporting men as a walk-over, and in all human probability no one ever saw a more disgusted set of sportsmen than those who went out yesterday in the hope of seeing a yacht race.

Such a thing as a walk-over had hitherto been unknown in the history of the America’s Cup, and most of those who watched it yesterday were simply lost in amazement. That the Earl of Dunraven would utterly refuse to race and sail his yacht from the starting point back to sandy Hook was something that never entered any yachtsman’s mind. Yet that is precisely what happened.

THE NEW YORK TIMES - Friday 13 September 1895 - EDITORIAL - “VICTORY - A YELLOW DOG - The cup is ours. We have won it in one straight race, a fluke, and a walkover. That’s three out of five. Fortunately the other two will never be sailed. Otherwise the complexities of protests and correspondence might involve us in actual litigation, the results of which, however, would eventually be favorable to us, for are not technicalities the life of litigation, the very soul of trade?

The ethics of yachting may not be distinctly understood, even by the man of average intelligence. Things may be “mixed up” in this affair, but out of the mix-up the average mind manages to grasp two or three ideas with a firmness that will never be relaxed.

The Defender won the first race fairly and squarely.

The Valkyrie did at the outset of the second race foul the Defender, unintentionally, as everybody admits.

A protest was entered by Mr. Iselin, but he sailed the race just the same, and came within 47 seconds, crippled as the Defender was, of beating the Valkyrie. What would have become of the protest had the defender been 47 seconds ahead of the Valkyrie, nobody unfamiliar with the laws of trade and of the commercial spirit that dictates the methods of barter would pretend to say.

The committee’s decision was just. Dunraven accepted it as a sportsman would, not as a jockey might. Opinions will always be divided as to whether a winner under such circumstances should be regarded as a jockey or as a true sportsman - whether he has played for “keeps” in the true commercial spirit or whether he should have tossed the decision aside and, with sportsmanlike emphasis, have declared: “It’s no race at all. We’ll try it over. Don’t foul me again. Beat me, if you can.”

However, the cup’s ours. We’ve got it on exhibition somewhere uptown, and we’re going to keep it, Mr. Bull, if we’re obliged to throw a squadron of evolution around our deed of trust, and hire a score of Tombs lawyers to provide us with the proper technicalities for our defense. Make no mistake about that. We can beat you by sea, we can navigate all around you by land. Build another two-hundred-thousand-dollar boat. Take our swell. Dodge our excursion fleet. Be a sportsman always. Beat us - if you can.

Meanwhile, many millions of Americans, if such a number there be who longer regard this as an international affair, will continue to ponder over the idea, “Was it such a beating, after all? Couldn’t we have beaten the Englishman without bringing a taint upon the victory? Have we beaten him in the good old-fashioned Yankee way, where Magnanimity was Commander and the only flag ever raised was that of Victory or Surrender?”

The New York Yacht Club, the custodians of the cup, will be divided upon some questions pertaining to the past, and having a serious bearing upon the future of international yacht racing.

Much will come of its discussions.

Does anybody suggest a new decoration, another device for the ornamentation of cup defenders?

If so, what’s the matter with having emblazoned upon their escutcheon, their flag, their genealogical adornment, their whatever you may term it - a yellow dog?”


Source: National Archives, Kew


Official Number; 97889

Port of Departure; Montreal, Quebec, Quebec, Canada

Arrival Date; September 1895 (no day given)

Port of Arrival; Liverpool, England

Shipping Line; Dominion Line

Port of Embarkation; New York, New York, United States

First Cabin Passengers:

A. H. GLENNIE, age 35, Gent.; T. RATSEY, age 41, Gent.

Second Cabin Passengers:; W. THEOBALD, 29, [all men described as English, Seaman]; ; A. CARTER, 29; P. KNIGHT, 34; W. STEWARD, 31; W. H. COOK, 27; F. SALMON, 23; J. BARNARD, 30; A. CLEMENCE, 31; B. HEARD, 31; A. LAY, 29; H. GREEN, 25; W. CRANFIELD, 32; C. DUNN, 31; H. WILKINSON, 30; A. ALLEN, 31; W. BEAVEN, 34; E. SAINTY, 27.

THE EVENING TRANSCRIPT - Boston - Tuesday 24 September 1895 - VALKYRIE STARTS TOMORROW - Lord Dunraven’s Yacht Leaves Erie Basin for Her Homeward Trip - New York, Sept. 24 - “Lord Dunraven’s Valkyrie bid farewell to Erie Basin at 10.30 this morning. She went out of the basin in tow of the tugboat Ida S. Tebo. It is said she will be taken to Bay Ridge and will lie at anchor there until tomorrow morning at eight o’clock, when she will start her voyage back to England. The City of Bridgeport, Valkyrie’s tender, came to the Erie Basin this morning and transferred a large quantity of stores to the sloop. Everything is now provided for the voyage except coal for cooking purposes, which will be taken down by the tender this afternoon. Captains Cranfield and Sycamore were on board the Valkyrie this morning and have a crew of about twenty men for the return voyage. Navigators Henderson and Hewiston will also make the trip back on the Valkyrie.

BOSTON EVENING TRANSCRIPT - Thursday 3 October 1895 - “New York - The White Star Line steamer Teutonic, which sailed for Liverpool from this port at four o’clock yesterday, bore away the remaining members of Lord Dunraven’s party and the Valkyrie’s crew. Captains Cranfield and Sycamore, in full yachting uniforms, stood on the second promenade deck, surrounded by a group of the Valkyrie’s sailors, some of whom wore their blue guernseys with the name of the yacht in white letters. Both the captains were in a very good humor, and were carrying on an animated conversation with a knot of the friends and admirers who stood upon the pier.

“Are you coming back next spring?” they were asked. “We don’t know,” said Captain Sycamore. “If Lord Dunraven decides to race Valkyrie here I suppose we will. It all depends upon what plans he makes. All we know is we are going home now, and right glad of it we are.”

As the big liner backed out from the pier a lusty-lunged Englishman shouted, “Good-bye, boys, and good luck; come over next year and give them a good licking.”

Everybody laughed, and the two captains raised their caps.

“Thank you,” and “good-bye,” was all they said.”

THE NEW YORK TIMES - Thursday 3 October 1895 - “VALKYRIE’S CREW SAIL - Passengers on the Teutonic - Lord Dunraven’s Daughters Also Leave - Lord Dunraven’s two daughters, the Ladies Aileen and Rachel Wyndham-Quin, Designer George L. Watson, Capts. Sycamore and Cranfield, and twenty-eight of the Valkyrie’s crew sailed for England yesterday on board the White Star Line steamer Teutonic. The Ladies Wyndham-Quin were accompanied by the Hon. and Mrs. Michael Herbert. They retired to their staterooms as soon as they went on board the steamer.

The crew of the Valkyrie were taken to the dock by the City of Bridgeport. Capt. Cranfield was seen just before the steamer sailed. He said: “I have enjoyed my stay in this country very much, but shall be glad to get home again. Of course, we are disappointed at the result of the races between the Defender and Valkyrie for the America’s Cup. The details of those races have been thoroughly discussed, and I can add nothing more to what has been said. I don’t  know when we shall come back, but I hope we shall be able to have a fair try with the Defender next Spring, and I think the Valkyrie will surprise many American yachtsmen.”

Designer Watson was one of the last passengers to board the steamer. He declined to be interviewed.”




The National Archives, Kew



Official Number; 2366

Port of Departure; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

Arrival Date; 4 October 1895

Port of Arrival; Liverpool, England

Shipping Line; American Line

Port of Embarkation; New York, New York, United States

Second Cabin Passengers

All men are described as; Single, Mariners, Englishmen

[Spellings are as found in the Passenger Manifest]


Capt. CRANFIELD age 54, Capt. SYCAMORE age 46, Mr. M. TAILER age 34, Mr. S. GOULD age 30, Mr. M. DEATH age 27, Mr. A. BISHOP age 29, Mr. W. DENT age 31, Mr. H. PETTICAN age 25, Mr. J. FALL age 27, Mr. J. HASTE age 27, Mr. A. KIRBY age 30, Mr. W. RUFFELL age 28, Mr. P. SALMON age 25, Mr. A. FIELD age 27, Mr. A. WADE age 29, Mr. A. SCRARF age 26, Mr. W. PERCIVAL age 28, Mr. J. CRANFIELD age 26, Mr. J. WALFORD age 30, Mr. E. ROPER age 24, Mr. J. CLARK age 27, Mr. W. LEWIS age 25, Mr. A. POTTER age 29, Mr. T. BAKER age 28, Mr. W. WADLEY age 27, Mr. A. BYFORD age 26


A large cross is written next to these names in the passenger manifest, followed by “? D.B.S. What are these passengers? To what ship do they belong?”

Written underneath in another hand is “Lord Dunraven’s crew of Valkyrie

It is not explained why the men were listed as passengers on the Rhynland when they travelled on the Teutonic.

THE YACHTING WORLD - Friday 4 October 1895 - “ROWHEDGE - Seventeen of Valkyrie’s crew have returned from America, and many are the tales one hears of the late Cup races.”

THE NEW YORK TIMES - Sunday 26 May 1901 - “VALKYRIE III TO BE BROKEN UP - Glasgow, May 25 - The Valkyrie III, which is lying in Gourock Bay, is to be broken up on Monday.”


Jonathan Cranfield 1872-1929 Certificate of Discharge 1895  - Valkyrie III - 01.jpg
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